Echinocereus coccineus

Engelmann in F. A. Wislizenus

in F. A. Wislizenus, Mem. Tour N. Mexico, 93. 1848.

Common names: Claret-cup cactus scarlet hedgehog cactus
Basionym: Echinocereus coccineus subsp. aggregatus (Engelmann ex S. Watson) W. Blum Mich. Lange & Rutow
Synonyms: Echinoce triglochidiatus var. melanacanthus (Engelmann) L. D. Benson
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 4. Mentioned on page 159, 164, 167, 168.

Plants commonly 20–100 (–500) -branched, loosely aggregated into clumps or tightly packed into rounded mounds, to 100 cm diam. Stems erect, cylindric (or spheric), 5–40 × 4–15 cm; ribs (5–) 6–14, crests slightly (or conspicuously) undulate; areoles 10–20 (–42) mm apart. Spines (1–) 5–16 (–22) per areole, mostly straight except on unusually long-spined individuals, ashy white to gray, brown, yellowish, reddish, or black, often dark tipped; radial spines (1–) 4–13 (–18) per areole, appressed to slightly projecting, (3–) 5–40 (–49) mm; central spines 0–6 per areole, spreading to projecting outward, terete (to angular), (5–) 10–80 mm. Flowers unisexual, (2.5–) 3.8–8 (–9) × (1.5–) 3–7 cm; flower tube (12–) 15–40 × 8–30 mm; flower tube hairs usually 1–2 mm; inner tepals crimson or scarlet, less often orange-red (very rarely rose-pink), with or without whitish or yellowish (or pink) proximal portion, usually 14–40 × 5–16 mm, tips thick and rigid; anthers usually pink or purple (rarely yellow); nectar chamber 4–10 mm (longer if measurement includes tube formed by connate stamen bases). Fruits greenish or yellowish to pinkish, bright red or brownish tinged, 20–40 (–72) mm or less, pulp white. 2n = 44.


Phenology: Flowering late Mar–Jun; fruiting 2-3 months after flowering.
Habitat: Chihuahuan Desert, desert scrub, desert grasslands, pinyon-juniper and oak woodlands, Great Plains grasslands, montane forest, bajadas, rocky slopes, and cliffs, igneous, metamorphic, and limestone substrates
Elevation: 150-2700(-3000) m

Distribution

V4 323-distribution-map.gif

Ariz., Colo., N.Mex., Tex., Mexico (Chihuahua), Mexico (Coahuila), Mexico (Sonora)

Discussion

Tetraploids belonging to Echinocereus coccineus constituted the greater part of L. D. Benson’s concept (1969, 1969b, 1969c, 1982) of E. triglochidiatus var. melanacanthus (see also discussion under 12. E. triglochidiatus). Where sympatric, the diploids and tetraploids are usually different in appearance, except in southeastern Arizona and extreme southwestern New Mexico (see discussion under 13. E. arizonicus), and in northern Arizona.

The common, tetraploid, claret-cup cacti of southeastern Arizona mountain ranges have bisexual flowers, and they have been named Echinocereus santaritensis W. Blum & Rutow. Similar plants from southwestern New Mexico are the basis for E. coccineus subsp. aggregatus [also called E. aggregatus (Engelmann ex S. Watson) Rydberg].

Populations of Echinocereus coccineus form an intergrading series from densely spine-covered typical coccineus in Colorado and northern New Mexico to sparsely spined plants in west-central Texas. Populations in the mildest climates have strikingly large stems, but shrink when transplanted (D. Weniger 1970). Populations intermediate between those extremes in the El Paso region sometimes are segregated as E. coccineus subsp. rosei.

Populations in northwestern Arizona with unusually small, narrow flowers Echinocereus toroweapensis (P. C. Fisher) Fuersch appear identical to E. canyonensis Clover & Jotter (M. A. Baker, pers. comm.). A type specimen for E. toroweapensis was apparently never preserved, so the name may be invalid.

Populations in the granitic region of central Texas (chromosome number unknown), probably belonging in Echinocereus coccineus, have been called E. coccineus subsp. roemeri (Muehlenpfordt) W. Blum, Mich. Lange & Rutow. Spines are more numerous than in the surrounding populations on limestone.

Echinocereus coccineus var. gurneyi (L. D. Benson) D. Ferguson was based on a short-spined plant, apparently introgressed from E. dasyacanthus, and so it pertains to E. ×roetteri Rümpler in the broad sense. It is not a true geographic race of E. coccineus.

Echinocereus santaritensis and the diploid called E. nigrihorridispinus (see discussion under 13. E. arizonicus) are ecologically and reproductively segregated but difficult to distinguish morphologically, especially when sterile. Spines of E. santaritensis tend to be thinner but only extremes are identifiable by spine thickness alone. Arizona reports of E. triglochidiatus var. neomexicanus were based on robust individuals from both of those taxa, whereas slender-spined specimens were identified mostly as E. triglochidiatus var. melanacanthus. Arizona reports of E. polyacanthus were based on either the hairy salverform flowers of E. santaritensis or the robust plants of E. nigrihorridispinus.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

No values specified."thick" is not a number.

... more about "Echinocereus coccineus"
purple +  and pink +
cushionlike +
circular to linear +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (4.2 cm42 mm <br />0.042 m <br />) +
deciduous +  and persistent +
hourglass--shaped +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
Allan D. Zimmerman +  and Bruce D. Parfitt +
Engelmann in F. A. Wislizenus +
hardened +
Echinocereus coccineus subsp. aggregatus +
triangular +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
curved +  and straight +
spreading +  and projecting +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
proliferating +
flattened +  and cylindric +
Claret-cup cactus +  and scarlet hedgehog cactus +
mucilaginous +
undulate +
Ariz. +, Colo. +, N.Mex. +, Tex. +, Mexico (Chihuahua) +, Mexico (Coahuila) +  and Mexico (Sonora) +
150-2700(-3000) m +
not separating +
8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br /> (9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br />) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
3.8 cm38 mm <br />0.038 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
2.6 cm26 mm <br />0.026 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (2.6 cm26 mm <br />0.026 m <br />) +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (7.2 cm72 mm <br />0.072 m <br />) +
yellowish;pinkish bright red or brownish tinged +
dehiscent +  and indehiscent +
persistent +, long +  and deciduous +
spheric +  and narrowly obovoid +
Chihuahuan Desert, desert scrub, desert grasslands, pinyon-juniper and oak woodlands, Great Plains grasslands, montane forest, bajadas, rocky slopes, and cliffs, igneous, metamorphic, and limestone substrates +
deciduous +  and persistent +
rudimentary +
flat +  and terete +
nearly +  and microscopic +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
tuberculate +
fluted;spheric;depressed-spheric or club-shaped +
rounded +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
smooth +  and tuberculate +
deciduous +  and persistent +
Flowering late Mar–Jun +  and fruiting 2-3 months after flowering. +
mucilaginous +
ridgelike +  and nipple--shaped +
yellowish +  and whitish +
1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.6 cm16 mm <br />0.016 m <br />) +
in F. A. Wislizenus, Mem. Tour N. Mexico, +
triangular +
arillate +  and strophiolate +
0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
rugose +  and tuberculate +
spheric;obovoid +
tuberculate +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (4.9 cm49 mm <br />0.049 m <br />) +
dark tipped +, ashy white +  and gray brown yellowish reddish or black +
straight +
deciduous +
3mm +  and 150mm +
appressed +  and slightly projecting +
4 (?) +  and 13 (?) +
roughened +  and smooth +
acicular +  and subulate +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
0.01 cm0.1 mm <br />1.0e-4 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
decurrent +
unsegmented +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
yellow-green +  and dark green +
5cm;40cm +
cylindric +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (40 cm400 mm <br />0.4 m <br />) +
succulent +
4cm;15cm +
yellowish green +  and green +
tuberculate +
Echinoce triglochidiatus var. melanacanthus +
adventitious +
tuberlike +
epipetric +  and epiphytic +
Echinocereus coccineus +
Echinocereus +
species +
dull +  and glossy +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
20-100(-500)-branched +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br />) +
epiphytic;epiphytic;epiphytic +
decumbent +, pendent +, sprawling +, ascending +  and erect +
barrel-shaped +  and spheric +