Echinocereus fendleri

(Engelmann) Sencke ex J. N. Haage

Preis-Verz. Cact. Succ., 22. 1860.

Common names: Fendler’s hedgehog cactus strawberry cactus
Basionym: Cereus fendleri Engelmann Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts, n. s. 4: 50. 1849 Echinocereus fendleri var. kuenzleri (Castetter P. Pierce & K. H. Schwerin) L. D. Benson
Synonyms: Echinocereus fendleri var. rectispinus (Peebles) L. D. Benson
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 4. Mentioned on page 164.

Plants unbranched or sometimes forming loose clumps of fewer than 20 somewhat flaccid branches. Stems erect or slightly decumbent, ovoid to cylindric with age, 7.5–17 (–30) × (3.3–) 3.8–7.5 (–10) cm; ribs 8–11 (–13), crests uninterrupted or undulate (sometimes depth of sinus between areoles 90% of rib height in flowering plants with juvenile stem morphology); areoles (12–) 15–17 (–25) mm apart. Spines (2–) 4–12 (–16) per areole, straight or curved (radial spines sometimes sinuous); radial spines spreading, opaquely white, commonly with dark stripe on underside, often with contrasting black or brown spines in same areoles (rarely all brown or all white), aging gray; radial spines (2–) 4–10 (–12) per areole, (8–) 11–39 mm; central spines (0–) 1 (–3) per areole, porrect or ascending, if curved, then usually directed upward, (10–) 25–42 (–62) mm, abaxial central spine like others in color or darker, flat to sharply angled. Flowers 5–11 × 5–11 cm; flower tube 10–15 × 10–30 mm; flower tube hairs 1–2 mm; inner tepals magenta [or nearly white], proximally sometimes darker or purplish maroon, 30–70 × (9.5–) 12–15 mm, tips relatively thin and delicate; anthers yellow; nectar chamber (2–) 3.5–6 (–8) mm. Fruits bright red, dull carmine, or purplish maroon, less often orange-tan or purplish orange, 20–30 (–50) mm, pulp magenta or red. 2n = 22.


Phenology: Flowering Apr–Jun; fruiting Jun–Aug.
Habitat: Mesquite thickets, semidesert grasslands, interior chaparral, pinyon-juniper or pine-oak woodlands, limestone or igneous substrates, mostly south-facing hillsides
Elevation: 900-2400 m

Distribution

V4 315-distribution-map.gif

Ariz., Colo., N.Mex., Tex., Mexico (Chihuahua), Mexico (Sonora)

Discussion

Frequently, some or all spines in each areole of Echinocereus fendleri are opaquely white, especially the lowermost (largest) radial spine, which is frequently strongly flattened (dorsiventrally compressed, its margins expanded and textured spongy or corky). On some immature plants, all the spines are modified in that way, reminiscent of spines of Pediocactus peeblesianus (Croizat) L. D. Benson.

Echinocereus fendleri has an indefinite number of (mostly) unnamed geographic races. One of these, var. rectispinus, of southeastern Arizona has enjoyed undeserved emphasis in the literature; it is often based on misidentifications of tetraploid E. fasciculatus.

The tuberculate stems and sparse, strangely modified spines of immature plants are retained to some extent in adulthood in some populations of Echinocereus fendleri var. fendleri. Such plants superficially resemble Pediocactus peeblesianaus. The name E. fendleri var. kuenzleri (Castetter, P. Pierce & K. H. Schwerin) L. D. Benson and its Mexican counterpart, E. hempelii Fobe, are based mainly on the stem feature. Immature plants of all populations share that distinctive appearance, strikingly different from immature plants of similar or related species, such as E. fasciculatus. In adulthood this convenient diagnostic characteristic is usually lost, rendering identification more difficult. On the Mexican border immature plants in some populations have as few as four spines per areole; they probably are intermediates with the obviously conspecific Chihuahuan taxon, E. hempelii Fobe.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"thin" is not a number.

... more about "Echinocereus fendleri"
7.5 cm75 mm <br />0.075 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
3.8 cm38 mm <br />0.038 m <br /> (7.5 cm75 mm <br />0.075 m <br />) +
cushionlike +
circular to linear +
1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
deciduous +  and persistent +
hourglass--shaped +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br />) +
Allan D. Zimmerman +  and Bruce D. Parfitt +
(Engelmann) Sencke ex J. N. Haage +
hardened +
Cereus fendleri +  and Echinocereus fendleri var. kuenzleri +
triangular +
0 +  and 20 +
4.2 cm42 mm <br />0.042 m <br /> (6.2 cm62 mm <br />0.062 m <br />) +
directed +, ascending +  and porrect +
variously angled +  and flattened +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (4.2 cm42 mm <br />0.042 m <br />) +
proliferating +
flattened +  and cylindric +
Fendler’s hedgehog cactus +  and strawberry cactus +
mucilaginous +
uninterrupted +
undulate +
Ariz. +, Colo. +, N.Mex. +, Tex. +, Mexico (Chihuahua) +  and Mexico (Sonora) +
900-2400 m +
not separating +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (11 cm110 mm <br />0.11 m <br />) +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
2.6 cm26 mm <br />0.026 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (2.6 cm26 mm <br />0.026 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
5cm;11cm +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
purplish orange;orange-tan;purplish maroon;carmine;purplish maroon;carmine;dull;bright red +
dehiscent +  and indehiscent +
persistent +, long +  and deciduous +
spheric +  and narrowly obovoid +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
Mesquite thickets, semidesert grasslands, interior chaparral, pinyon-juniper or pine-oak woodlands, limestone or igneous substrates, mostly south-facing hillsides +
0.95 cm9.5 mm <br />0.0095 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
deciduous +  and persistent +
rudimentary +
flat +  and terete +
nearly +  and microscopic +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
tuberculate +
fluted;spheric;depressed-spheric or club-shaped +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
smooth +  and tuberculate +
deciduous +  and persistent +
Flowering Apr–Jun +  and fruiting Jun–Aug. +
mucilaginous +
ridgelike +  and nipple--shaped +
Preis-Verz. Cact. Succ., +
red +  and magenta +
triangular +
arillate +  and strophiolate +
0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
rugose +  and tuberculate +
spheric;obovoid +
tuberculate +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br />) +
brown +, black +, gray +, dark stripe +  and white +
curved +  and straight +
deciduous +
3mm +  and 150mm +
4 (?) +  and 10 (?) +
roughened +  and smooth +
acicular +  and subulate +
1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br /> (3.9 cm39 mm <br />0.039 m <br />) +
0.01 cm0.1 mm <br />1.0e-4 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
decurrent +
unsegmented +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
yellow-green +  and dark green +
7.5cm;17cm +
decumbent;erect +
ovoid +  and cylindric +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (40 cm400 mm <br />0.4 m <br />) +
succulent +
1cm;15cm +
yellowish green +  and green +
tuberculate +
Echinocereus fendleri var. rectispinus +
adventitious +
tuberlike +
epipetric +  and epiphytic +
Echinocereus fendleri +
Echinocereus +
species +
dull +  and glossy +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
sometimes +  and unbranched +
epiphytic;epiphytic;epiphytic +
decumbent +, pendent +, sprawling +, ascending +  and erect +
barrel-shaped +  and spheric +