Common names: Bottlebrush grass Glumeless wlldrye
Endemic
Synonyms: Hystrix patula var. bigeloviana Hystrix patula Elymus hystrix var. bigelovianus
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 24. Treatment on page 316.

Plants cespitose, not rhizomatous, occasionally glaucous, particularly the spikes. Culms 50-140 cm, usually erect, occasionally geniculate below; nodes 4-8, exposed or concealed, glabrous. Leaves evenly distributed; sheaths usually glabrous, occasionally pilose, often purplish; auricles usually present, 0.5-3 mm, brown to black; ligules 1-2 (3) mm; blades 4-16 mm wide, lax, usually deep glossy green, adaxial surfaces pilose or scabridulous. Spikes 7-20 cm long, 4-7 cm wide, more or less erect, usually with 2 spikelets per node, rarely with 3 at some nodes; internodes (3) 4-8 (10) mm long, (0.1) 0.2-0.3 (0.4) mm thick at the thinnest sections, flexuous, usually glabrous, sometimes scabrous or hirsute, usually with green lateral bands. Spikelets 10-18 mm, strongly divergent to patent at maturity, with (1) 2-4 (6) florets, lowest florets functional; disarticulation above the glumes, beneath each floret. Glumes usually vestigial, sometimes 1-3 mm long, about 0.1 mm wide, subulate, entire, with no evident veins, occasionally to 10 (20) mm long including the undifferentiated awns and differing in length by more than 5 mm, 0.1-0.2 mm wide, setaceous, tapering from the base, usually glabrous, occasionally appressed-puberulent to strigose, sometimes scabrous, usually straight, rarely somewhat curving, margins firm; lemmas 8-11 mm, usually glabrous, occasionally appressed-puberulent to strigose, especially near the margins and apices, awns (12) 20-40 (47) mm, usually straight, rarely somewhat curving; paleas 7-11 mm, obtuse or truncate, occasionally emarginate; anthers 2.5-5 mm. Anthesis mid-june to early July. 2n = 28.

Distribution

Conn., N.J., N.Y., Md., Del., D.C., Wis., W.Va., Mass., Maine, N.H., R.I., Vt., N.Mex., N.C., Tenn., S.C., Pa., Va., N.Dak., Ala., Iowa, Kans., Nebr., Ohio, S.Dak., Ark., Okla., Ill., Ga., Ind., Man., N.B., N.S., Ont., Que., Mo., Minn., Mich., Ky.

Discussion

Elymus hystrix grows in dry to moist soils in open woods and thickets, especially on base-rich slopes and small stream terraces. It grows throughout most of temperate eastern North America, extending west to Manitoba and Oklahoma, but is absent from the southern portion of the coastal plain.

Plants with pubescent lemmas have been recognized as Elymus hystrix var. bigelovianus (Fernald) Bowden. These occur infrequently north of a line from South Dakota through Kentucky to New Jersey, and are often mixed with the typical variety; uniform populations are known in the northeastern United States. Plants with pubescent blades are also more prevalent to the north. Elymus hystrix hybridizes with most eastern species of Elymus. Introgression may account for the considerable variation in glume development and spikelet appression among these species. Lack of glumes may be a recessive character, with even slight glume development indicating introgression (Church 1967b). Plants with relatively well-developed, subequal glumes are presumed to be of hybrid origin. Such plants include most material from the Carolina piedmont region, where E. glabriflorus (p. 296) is the most likely source of introgression. The relatively frequent hybrids with E. virginicus (p. 298) are usually sterile, but Church (1967b) made crosses through three segregating generations. Within the ranges of E. diversiglumis (p. 316), E. svensonii (p. 314), and E. churchii (p. 314;, there appear to be frequent introgressants between these species and E. hystrix. Further east, especially in the Appalachian regions of North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland (including the shale barrens and nearby), there are scattered plants of E. hystrix with curving awns and, in a few cases, appressed spikelets (Campbell 2002). Whether these represent occasional variation within the E. hystrix gene pool, or whether they are outlying remnants of introgression with E. canadensis (p. 303) during a past eastward extension, is unknown.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"decumbent" is not a number.

... more about "Elymus hystrix"
membranous +  and scarious +
with hairs +  and scabrous +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
Bidentate (?) +  and Acute (?) +
brown +  and black +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
Mary E. Barkworth +, Julian J.N. Campbell +  and Bjorn Salomon +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br /> (?) +
curving +  and straight +
basal +  and apical +
from the sinus +  and terminal +
undifferentiated +
not geniculate +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
keeled +  and rounded +
pseudopetiolate +  and branching +
intravaginal +, extravaginal +, branching +  and basal +
swelling +
not evident +
cross +, linear +  and narrowly lanceolate +
4mm;16mm +
spikelike +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
hairy +  and glabrous +
Bottlebrush grass +  and Glumeless wlldrye +
not branching +
sometimes strongly decumbent +  and prostrate +
geniculate +
50 cm500 mm <br />0.5 m <br /> (140 cm1,400 mm <br />1.4 m <br />) +
not woody +
Conn. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, Md. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Wis. +, W.Va. +, Mass. +, Maine +, N.H. +, R.I. +, Vt. +, N.Mex. +, N.C. +, Tenn. +, S.C. +, Pa. +, Va. +, N.Dak. +, Ala. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Nebr. +, Ohio +, S.Dak. +, Ark. +, Okla. +, Ill. +, Ga. +, Ind. +, Man. +, N.B. +, N.S. +, Ont. +, Que. +, Mo. +, Minn. +, Mich. +  and Ky. +
liquid +, soft +  and hard +
capillary +
pistillate +  and staminate +
2 +  and 4 +
laterally compressed +  and terete +
(0)1-7-veined +
curving +  and straight +
shorter than to longer than the adjacent florets +
1mm +  and 3mm +
subtending +
occasionally appressed-puberulent +  and strigose +
tapering +, setaceous +  and subulate +
unequal +, subequal +  and reduced +
0.1mm +  and 0.2mm +
uncinate +
solid +  and hollow +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (?) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (?) +  and 0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (?) +
hirsute +, scabrous +  and glabrous +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (2.6 cm26 mm <br />0.026 m <br />) +
0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br /> (0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br />) +
ciliate +  and scabrous +
distributed +
occasionally appressed-puberulent +  and strigose +
linear-lanceolate +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br />) +
stiffly membranous +  and coriaceous +
erose +  and entire +
acute +, rounded +  and truncate +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
membranous +
inconspicuous +
lanceolate +
fleshy +  and membranous +
concealed +  and exposed +
3 +, 4 +  and 8 +
2 +  and 1 +
hairy +  and glabrous +
emarginate +  and truncate +
well-developed +
slightly longer +
subequal +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br />) +
dry +  and fleshy +
spikelike +
pilose +  and glabrous +
7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br /> (?) +  and 20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br /> (?) +
subsessile +  and sessile +
bisexual +  and sterile +
terete +  and compressed +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
simple +  and compound +
2 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
not papillate +
Hystrix patula var. bigeloviana +, Hystrix patula +  and Elymus hystrix var. bigelovianus +
Elymus hystrix +
species +
membranous +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br />) +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (?) +  and 1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (?) +
unequal +
plant +  and cespitose +
aquatic +  and terrestrial +