Ephedra californica

S. Watson

Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 14: 300. 1879.

Common names: California ephedra cañatillo
Illustrated
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 2.

Shrubs erect, 0.25–1 m. Bark gray-brown, cracked and irregularly fissured. Branches alternate or whorled, semiflexible to rigid, angle of divergence about 45°. Twigs yellow-green, becoming yellow, then yellowbrown with age, glaucous, with numerous very fine longitudinal grooves; internodes 3–10 cm. Terminal buds conic, 2–3 mm, apex acute. Leaves in whorls of 3, 2–6 mm, connate to 1/2–3/4 their length; bases at first membranous, then becoming thickened, completely deciduous; apex acute. Pollen cones 1–several at node, ovoid, 6–8 mm, on short, scaly peduncles; bracts in 8–12 whorls of 3, light orange-yellow, ovate, 2–3 × 2–3 mm, membranous, slightly united at base; bracteoles equaling or slightly exceeding bracts; sporangiophores 3–5 mm, exserted to 1/3 their length, with 3–7 sessile to short-stalked microsporangia. Seed-cones 1–several at node, ovoid, 8–10 mm, on very short, scaly peduncles; bracts in 4–6 whorls of 3, circular, 5–7 × 5–10 mm, papery, with orange to green-yellow center and base, slightly clawed, margins entire. Seeds 1 (–2), nearly globose, 7–10 mm diam., brown, smooth.


Phenology: Coning March–April.
Habitat: Dry slopes and fans to valley grasslands
Elevation: 50–1000 m

Distribution

V2 210-distribution-map.gif

Calif., Mexico in Baja California

Discussion

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Ephedra californica"
Dennis Wm. Stevenson +
S. Watson +
gray-brown +
fissured +
deciduous +
membranous +
whorled +  and opposite +
light orange-yellow +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
clawed +  and ovate +
papery +  and membranous +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
slightly exceeding bracts +  and equaling +
whorled +  and alternate +
yellowish green;olive-green +
semiflexible +
orange +  and green-yellow +
California ephedra +  and cañatillo +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
on short to long peduncle +, sessile +  and compound +
subtending +
Calif. +  and Mexico in Baja California +
50–1000 m +
Dry slopes and fans to valley grasslands +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
in whorls +  and opposite +
ephemeral +
connate +
0;1/2-3/4 +
photosynthetic +
scale-like +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
sessile +  and short-stalked +
single-integumented +
Coning March–April. +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
whorled +, opposite +  and overlapping +
fleshy +, papery +  and membranous +
Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts +
ellipsoid;ovoid obovoid or nearly globose +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
smooth to scabrous +
globose +
Illustrated +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
Ephedra californica +
species +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
yellowbrown +, yellow +  and yellow-green +
3 +, 4 +  and 6 +