Epipactis helleborine

(Linnaeus) Crantz

Stirp. Austr. Fasc. ed. 2, 2: 467. 1769.

Common names: Broad-leaved helleborine
IntroducedIllustrated
Basionym: Serapias helleborine Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 2: 949. 1753
Synonyms: Epipactis latifolia (Linnaeus) Allioni
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 26. Treatment on page 586. Mentioned on page 584, 585, 591.

Plants 25–80 (–100) cm, sparsely to densely pubescent. Leaves 3–10, orbiculate, elliptic to narrowly lanceolate, 4–18 × 1.5–8.5 cm. Inflorescences racemes, loose to moderately dense, commonly 1-sided; floral bracts spreading, linear to narrowly lanceolate, 10–40 (–70) mm, often exceeding flowers. Flowers 15–50, small; sepals greenish, often suffused with purple; lateral sepals 10–13 × 5–6 mm, apex oblique; petals ovate, pale green, pink, purple, or yellowish, 9–11 × 4–6 mm; lip indistinctly veined, constricted at middle into 2 parts, proximal part purplish to brownish, deeply concave, not papillose, 9–12 × 8 mm, distal part recurved, pink, broadly-triangular-ovate, ± flat to tip, 5 × 5 mm; calli 2, near base, brownish, not rugose; column 3–6 mm; ovary glabrous. Capsules obovoid, 9–14 mm, glabrate to densely pubescent. 2n = 36, 38, 40, 44.


Phenology: Flowering Jun–Oct.
Habitat: Moist to dry, rocky, shaded, deciduous to mixed woods, cedar swamps and forested stream margins, often in disturbed places such as lawns, and cracks in concrete sidewalks
Elevation: 0–1300 m

Distribution

V26 1196-distribution-map.jpg

Introduced; B.C., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), Ont., Que., Ark., Calif., Conn., Ill., Ind., Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., Mont., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Oreg., Pa., R.I., Tenn., Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Eurasia, North Africa

Discussion

Epipactis helleborine is known to have been thoroughly naturalized in North America since 1879 (C. A. Luer 1975).

Extensive and striking color variations in Epipactis helleborine have led to the description of numerous varieties and forms. Most of the varieties originated in Europe, but the following forms originated in North America. With the exception of forma luteola, which has been noted only from Vermont, the other forms occur randomly throughout the range of the species: forma alba (Webster) B. Boivin, white-flowered form; forma luteola P. M. Brown, yellow-flowered; forma monotropoides (Mousley) Scoggan, albino; forma variegata (Webster) B. Boivin, variegated, the leaves with white and cream markings; forma viridens A. Gray, green-flowered.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Epipactis helleborine"
44 +, 40 +, 38 +  and 36 +
self-pollination +
Paul Martin Brown +  and George W. Argus +
(Linnaeus) Crantz +
Serapias helleborine +
indehiscent +
not +  and articulate +
conduplicate +  and plicate +
flattened +, triangular +  and cylindric +
not rugose +
glabrate +  and densely pubescent +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (?) +  and 1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br /> (?) +
broadened +
Broad-leaved helleborine +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (?) +
broadly-triangular-ovate +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (?) +
B.C. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, Ont. +, Que. +, Ark. +, Calif. +, Conn. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Ky. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mo. +, Mont. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, Tenn. +, Vt. +, Va. +, Wash. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +, Eurasia +  and North Africa +
0–1300 m +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
pendent +  and spreading +
obovoid;ellipsoid +
Moist to dry, rocky, shaded, deciduous to mixed woods, cedar swamps and forested stream margins, often in disturbed places such as lawns, and cracks in concrete sidewalks +
lateral +  and terminal +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br />) +
petiolate +, sessile +  and simple +
4cm +  and 18cm +
cauline +  and basal +
3 (?) +  and 10 (?) +
elliptic +  and narrowly lanceolate +
reduced +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (8.5 cm85 mm <br />0.085 m <br />) +
divided +
constricted +
differing in form and color +
1-many-flowered +  and cymose +
pendent +  and erect +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
Flowering Jun–Oct. +
purplish +  and brownish +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
not papillose +
Stirp. Austr. Fasc. ed. +
aerial +  and subterranean +
minute +
suffused with purple +  and greenish +
free +, distinct +, adnate +  and connate +
concave +, ovate +  and ovatelanceolate +
foliaceous +
not +  and alike +
Introduced +  and Illustrated +
pendent +  and erect +
proliferous +
thickened +  and stout +
concave +  and convex +
Epipactis latifolia +
Epipactis helleborine +
Epipactis +
species +
aquatic +, lithophytic +, terrestrial +  and epiphytic +
saprophytic +, photosynthetic +  and mycotrophic +