Ferocactus wislizeni

(Engelmann) Britton & Rose

Cact. 3: 127. 1922.

Common names: Compass barrel Arizona barrel cactus candy barrel cactus
Illustrated
Basionym: Echinocactus wislizeni Engelmann in F. A. Wislizenus, Mem. Tour N. Mexico, 96. 1848 Echinocactus emoryi Engelmann 1848
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 4. Treatment on page 244. Mentioned on page 243, 245.

Stems usually leaning southward in adulthood, depressed-spheric to ovoid-cylindric, 19–100 (–300) × (20–) 36–65 (–100) cm. Ribs 20–30 (–40), shallowly notched immediately above each areole. Spines 16–25 (–29) per areole, central spines and larger radial spines dull pink, gray, or tan; smallest spines per areole white, slender, often bristlelike, less than 1 mm diam., strongly contrasting with central spines; central spines (1–) 2–4, often with several, subulate subcentral spines, rigid; principal central spine strongly hooked (very rarely straight), 36–120 (–150) mm from curve of hook to base of spine, 1.5–4 (–7) mm wide, strongly annulate, terete, ± angular, or flattened and often adaxially troughlike; other central spines subulate, slightly smaller. Flowers similar in color inside and out, 4–8.5 × 4–6.5 cm; inner tepals orange, red, or yellow with orange to red midstripes, or wholly yellow; stigma lobes yellow, orange, or red. Fruits ± readily dehiscent through basal pore, bright-yellow, 35–60 × 18–40 mm, thick walled, leathery or fleshy, locule dry, hollow except for seeds. Seeds (1.9–) 2–2.5 (–2.9) mm, essentially smooth with very narrow and slightly raised reticulations. 2n = 22.


Phenology: Flowering late summer(-fall).
Habitat: Desert scrub, grasslands, south-facing slopes in lower edges of oak woodlands, flats, bajadas, mountainsides, usually relatively deep soils of limestone and igneous origin
Elevation: 100-1600(-1800) m

Distribution

V4 445-distribution-map.gif

Ariz., N.Mex., Tex., Mexico (Chihuahua), Mexico (Sonora)

Discussion

The stems of Ferocactus wislizeni commonly lean southward, hence the vernacular name, compass barrel. Eventually they fall to the ground from their own weight, uprooting themselves.

Introgressive hybridization with Ferocactus cylindraceus is thus far not documented, but is often invoked as an explanation for difficulty in identifying individual specimens in or near the wide region of sympatry. The putative hybrids mostly vanish with sufficient expertise in identifying the “parental” species.

Ferocactus wislizeni barely extends into Mexico, where two allopatric species, F. tiburonensis (G. E. Lindsay) Backeberg and F. herrerae J. G. Ortega, often are cited as varieties of F. wislizeni. All reports of intermediates with F. herrerae are based on normal F. herrerae, the subtropical species (R. S. Felger 2000).

The finely reticulate seed coat of Ferocactus wislizeni is diagnostic among the species of Ferocactus in the flora.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

No values specified.

... more about "Ferocactus wislizeni"
cushionlike +
blunt +, ovoid +  and cylindric +
circular to linear +
deciduous +  and persistent +
connected +
nearly circular +  and oblong or elliptic +
Allan D. Zimmerman +  and Bruce D. Parfitt +
(Engelmann) Britton & Rose +
hardened +
1.5mm;4mm +
Echinocactus wislizeni +  and Echinocactus emoryi +
triangular +
proliferating +
flattened +  and cylindric +
Compass barrel +, Arizona barrel cactus +  and candy barrel cactus +
not mucilaginous +
Ariz. +, N.Mex. +, Tex. +, Mexico (Chihuahua) +  and Mexico (Sonora) +
100-1600(-1800) m +
not separating +
8.5 cm85 mm <br />0.085 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (8.5 cm85 mm <br />0.085 m <br />) +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (8.5 cm85 mm <br />0.085 m <br />) +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
4cm;6.5cm +
bright-yellow +
persistent +
35mm;60mm +
cylindric +, ovoid +  and spheric +
fleshy +  and leathery +
Desert scrub, grasslands, south-facing slopes in lower edges of oak woodlands, flats, bajadas, mountainsides, usually relatively deep soils of limestone and igneous origin +
deciduous +  and persistent +
rudimentary +
flat +  and terete +
nearly +  and microscopic +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
tuberculate +
fluted;spheric;depressed-spheric or club-shaped +
13 cm130 mm <br />0.13 m <br /> (17 cm170 mm <br />0.17 m <br />) +
30mm +  and 130mm +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
obtuse +, denticulate +  and fimbriate +
orange +  and red +
deciduous +  and persistent +
Flowering late summer(-fall). +
not mucilaginous +
12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
3.6 cm36 mm <br />0.036 m <br /> (12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br />) +
troughlike +, flattened +, angular +, terete +  and hooked +
ridgelike +  and nipple--shaped +
, +  and whitish +
prominent +
notched +
broadly rounded +  and lanceolate +
arillate +  and strophiolate +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.29 cm2.9 mm <br />0.0029 m <br />) +
0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
spheric;subreniform +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
Illustrated +
radial +  and cluster +
tan +, gray +  and pink +
straight +  and curved +
deciduous +  and persistent +
16 (?) +  and 25 (?) +
annulate-ridged +, hairlike +, daggerlike +, subulate +  and acicular +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
hard +  and rigid +
decurrent +
unsegmented +
65 cm650 mm <br />0.65 m <br /> (100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br />) +
19cm;100cm +
depressed-spheric +  and ovoid-cylindric +
succulent +
36cm;65cm +
red +, orange +  and yellow +
tuberculate +
adventitious +
tuberlike +
epipetric +  and epiphytic +
Ferocactus wislizeni +
Ferocactus +
species +
straight +
distinct +
reticulate +  and pitted +
flat +, concave +  and convex +
dull +  and glossy +
annulate-ridged +
branched +  and unbranched +
epiphytic;epiphytic;epiphytic +
leaning +  and erect +
barrel-shaped +  and spheric +