Festuca prolifera

(Piper) Fernald
Common names: Proliferous fescue
Endemic
Synonyms: Festuca rubra var. prolifera Festuca rubra subsp. prolifera Festuca prolifera var. lasiolepis
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 24. Treatment on page 419.
Please click on the illustration for a higher resolution version.
Illustrator: Cindy Roché

Copyright: Utah State University

Plants usually loosely cespitose, often mat-forming, sometimes with solitary culms, rhizomatous. Culms (10) 20-41 cm, smooth, glabrous throughout or pubescent near the inflorescence, bases often geniculate. Sheaths closed for about 3/4 their length, often splitting with age, coarsely ribbed, shredding into fibers, bases reddish-brown, scarious; collars glabrous; ligules 0.1-0.4 (0.6) mm; blades 0.3-0.8 (1) mm in diameter, conduplicate, green or glaucous, abaxial surfaces glabrous, smooth or scabrous, adaxial surfaces scabrous or puberulent; abaxial sclerenchyma in 5-7 (9) small strands; adaxial sclerenchyma absent. Inflorescences (3) 5-12 cm, usually paniculate, sometimes racemose or subracemose, compact or open, with 1-2 branches per node; branches stiff or somewhat lax, lower branches with 1-3 spikelets. Spikelets pseudoviviparous, varying in length with the stage of vegetative proliferation, the glumes and often 1 or 2 adjacent florets more or less normally developed or only slightly elongated, glabrous or pubescent, the distal florets vegetative. Glumes more or less normally developed, ovate to lanceolate; lower glumes (2.5) 3-3.5 (5.5); upper glumes 3.5-4.5 (6.5); lowest lemma in each spikelet usually normally developed, acute, unawned, usually without reproductive structures or the structures abortive; subsequent lemmas modified into leafy bracts; paleas usually absent, shorter than the lemmas if present, intercostal region puberulent distally; anthers usually aborted, when present 1.5-2.3 (3) mm; ovaries rarely present, apices glabrous. 2n = 49, 50, 63.

Discussion

Festuca prolifera is often abundant, and may be a dominant component in some habitats. The leafy bulbils or plantlets sometimes root when the top-heavy inflorescence is bent to the ground.

Festuca prolifera has two varieties: Festuca prolifera (Piper) Fernald var. prolifera, with glabrous lemmas; and Festuca prolifera var. lasiolepis Fernald, with pubescent lemmas. Festuca prolifera var. prolifera grows in arctic, alpine, or boreal rocky areas, in calcareous, basic or neutral soils, and is found in the James Bay area, Ungava Bay, western Newfoundland, Cape Breton, the Gaspe Peninsula, the White Mountains (New Hampshire), and Katahdin (Maine). Festuca prolifera var. lasiolepis is found in moist, sandy riverbanks, lake shores, rocky areas, and cliffs, often on limestone, from the southeastern Northwest Territories to northern Quebec, Anticosti Island, and western Newfoundland. Proliferous plants from southern Greenland with extravaginal shoots, named F. villosa-vivipara (Rosenv.) E.B. Alexeev, are similar to F. prolifera, but appear to be hybrids between F. rubra and F. frederikseniae (see under F. frederikseniae, p. 436).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"wider than long" is not a number."decumbent" is not a number."elongated" is not a number."longest" is not a number."varying" is not a number.

... more about "Festuca prolifera"
63 +, 50 +  and 49 +
glabrous +  and glaucous +
membranous +  and scarious +
puberulent +  and scabrous +
awned +  and entire +
Stephen J. Darbyshire +  and Leon E. Pavlickf +
(Piper) Fernald +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
straight +
basal +  and terminal +
keeled +  and rounded +
pseudopetiolate +  and branching +
reddish-brown +
intravaginal +, extravaginal +, branching +  and basal +
geniculate +
swelling +
scarious +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (?) +
not deciduous +  and deciduous +
not evident +
flat +, convolute +  and setaceous +
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br />) +
spreading;widely spreading +
spikelike +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
Proliferous fescue +
not branching +
ascending +  and erect +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br /> (41 cm410 mm <br />0.41 m <br />) +
not woody +
Conn. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, Wash. +, B.C. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +, Ala. +, Ariz. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, D.C +, Del. +, Ga. +, Pacific Islands (Hawaii) +, Iowa +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Ky. +, Md. +, Maine +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mont. +, N.Dak. +, Nebr. +, N.Mex. +, Nev. +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, S.C. +, Vt. +, Alaska +, Mass. +, N.H. +, R.I. +, Fla. +, Wyo. +, Kans. +, Tex. +, La. +, Miss. +, Tenn. +, N.C. +, S.Dak. +, Utah +, Va. +, Ark. +, Okla. +, Alta. +, Greenland +, Man. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. +, N.S. +, N.W.T. +, Nunavut +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Yukon +, Ohio +  and Mo. +
1/4 +  and 1/3 +
liquid +, soft +  and hard +
capillary +
pistillate +  and staminate +
sometimes longer +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
2 +  and 10 +
compressed +
reduced +
shorter or longer +
subtending +
2 +  and 1 +
ovate +  and lanceolate +
unequal +  and subequal +
persisting +
uncinate +
open +, compact +  and subracemose +
racemose +  and paniculate +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br />) +
1-7(9)-veined +
awned +  and entire +
bidentate +
coriaceous +, chartaceous +  and membranous +
0.01 cm0.1 mm <br />1.0e-4 m <br /> (0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br />) +
membranous +
inconspicuous +
lanceolate +
concealed +  and prominent +
2 +  and 1 +
with hispidulous apices +  and glabrous +
well-developed +
2-keeled +
spikelike +
dry +  and fleshy +
glabrous +, pubescent +  and scabrous +
compressed +
0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
simple +  and compound +
2 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
Festuca rubra var. prolifera +, Festuca rubra subsp. prolifera +  and Festuca prolifera var. lasiolepis +
Festuca prolifera +
Festuca sect. Festuca +
species +
membranous +
3.5 +  and 4.5 +
parallel +  and converging +
obscure +  and prominent +
plant +, mat-forming +  and cespitose +
aquatic +  and terrestrial +