Grimmia funalis

(Schwägrichen) Bruch & Schimper

Bryol. Europ. 3: 119, fig. 247. 1845,.

Basionym: Trichostomum funale Schwägrichen Sp. Musc. Frond. Suppl. 1(1): 150, plate 37. 1811
Synonyms: Grimmia calvescens Kindberg Grimmia imberbis Kindberg Grimmia ryanii Limpricht Grimmia spiralis Hooker
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 27. Treatment on page 251. Mentioned on page 229, 230, 247, 250.

Plants growing in dense, usually hemispherical cushions, breaking up readily, falling apart into clusters and string-like (spirally twisted leaves) single shoots, grayish green. Stems 2–5 cm, central strand present. Leaves usually spirally arranged when dry, patent when moist, lanceolate, 0.5–1.5 × 0.2–0.5 mm, appressed, of ± uniform length throughout stem, keeled, margins plane or recurved on one side, in female plants awns long and denticulate, in male plants very short to absent, costa weak proximally, projecting on abaxial side; basal juxtacostal laminal cells elongate, ± sinuose, thick-walled; basal marginal proximal laminal cells short-rectangular, hyaline; medial laminal cells short-rectangular, extremely sinuose, thick-walled; distal laminal cells 2-stratose. Gemmae absent. Sexual condition dioicous. Seta arcuate, 1.5–2 mm. Capsule occasionally present, exserted, yellowish green, obloid, weakly striate, concealed in awns, exothecial cells thin-walled, annulus present, operculum conical to rostellate, peristome teeth orange, split distally, papillose. Calyptra mitrate.


Habitat: Damp acidic rock
Elevation: moderate to high elevations (500-2000 m)

Distribution

V27 345-distribution-map.gif

Nunavut, Ont., La., Mich., Eurasia

Discussion

Grimmia funalis is frequently misidentified because it is extremely variable in height, color, and length of the awns. In optimal conditions, it forms extremely dense, grayish green cushions that break up easily into clusters and straight single plants. A distinctive feature is the string-like appearance of the dried-up shoots, which results from the spiral twisting of the leaves around the stem. However, Greven has also seen populations without such spirally twisted leaves. Under the microscope, the mid leaf areolation with yellowish, short-rectangular, very thick, and sinuose cell walls is characteristic. The formerly recognized taxa G. calvescens, G. imberbis, and G. ryanii are actually male plants of G. funalis. They grow in separate cushions with muticous to short-awned leaves, deviating greatly from the much taller, long-awned female plants. These male plants might be confused with G. elongata, which frequently grows in the same habitat, or with G. caespiticia. However, in G. elongata the basal cells are pellucid, straight, and thin-walled or only slightly incrassate. In G. caespiticia the basal cells are shorter, tending to be quadrate to short-rectangular, and the leaf apex is cucullate.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Grimmia funalis"
deciduous +  and persistent +
well-defined +
differentiated +
Roxanne I. Hastings +  and Henk C. Greven +
(Schwägrichen) Bruch & Schimper +
only rarely longer +
not papillose +
toothed +
sinuous +  and straight to sometimes +
sinuose-nodulose;quadrate;elongate +
oblate;elongate +
divided +
Trichostomum funale +
undifferentiated +
plicate +  and smooth +
less +  and 1/2 +
not papillose +
small;medium +
yellowish green +
pendulous +  and cernuous +
striate +  and smooth +
thin +  and thick +
thick-walled +  and thin-walled +
quadrate +  and rectangular +
excurrent;percurrent;excurrent +
subpercurrent +
reniform +, elliptical +  and terete +
usually not markedly larger +
hemispherical +
1-stratose +  and multistratose +
Nunavut +, Ont. +, La. +, Mich. +  and Eurasia +
moderate to high elevations (500-2000 m) +
reproduction +  and asexual +
dioicous +  and sexual +
Damp acidic rock +
papillose +, mammillose +  and smooth +
thick-walled +  and sinuose +
specialized +
dioicous +, autoicous +  and sexual +
0.5mm;1.5mm +
keeled +  and lanceolate +
0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
1;multistratose +
denticulate +  and plane +
thick-walled +  and sinuose +
short-rectangular +
thick-walled +  and sinuose +
thick-walled +  and sinuose +
conical;rostellate +
not +  and enlarged +
not +  and differentiated +
lanceolate;linear +
Bryol. Europ. +
straight +
papillose +  and smooth +
arcuate;cygneous +
short to long +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
string-like +
papillose +
globose +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
muticous;long-awned +
Grimmia calvescens +, Grimmia imberbis +, Grimmia ryanii +  and Grimmia spiralis +
Grimmia funalis +
Grimmia subg. Rhabdogrimmia +
species +