Grimmia subg. Litoneuron

I. Hagen

Kongel. Norske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr. (Trondheim) 1909(5): 6, fig. 10. 1909,.

Treatment appears in FNA Volume 27. Treatment on page 242. Mentioned on page 226, 228, 233, 243, 244, 246, 258.

Plants 1–4 cm. Stem central strand present. Leaves broadly oblong-ovate to narrowly ovatelanceolate or ligulate from an ovate base, concave, margins plane or incurved, costa immersed; basal marginal cells hyaline or not; distal lamina 2–3-stratose. Gemmae absent. Sexual condition dioicous. Seta straight or sigmoid, centrally attached to capsule. Capsule exserted (emergent in G. nevadensis), smooth; stomata present or absent, small, at base of capsule. Calyptra mitrate to cucullate, covering operculum.

Distribution

North America, Mexico, Central America, South America, Eurasia, Africa, Indian Ocean Islands, Australia

Discussion

Species 15 (7 in the flora).

Members of subg. Litoneuron are recognized by their thick, concave leaves with plane margins and costa not projecting prominently from the lamina. The stems have well-developed central strands. They are dioicous, and capsules are not common, but if present they are usually long-exserted on a straight or rarely only slightly sigmoid seta. The annulus is typically large and prominent but is absent in Grimmia hamulosa. Members of the subgenus have habitat preferences ranging broadly from dry exposed rocks to stream banks and cliff faces along lake shores. They are found on acidic to basic rocks ranging from near sea level up to the alpine zone.

Selected References

None.

... more about "Grimmia subg. Litoneuron"
deciduous +  and persistent +
well-defined +
differentiated +
Roxanne I. Hastings +  and Henk C. Greven +
I. Hagen +
only rarely longer +
not papillose +
toothed +
sinuous +  and straight to sometimes +
sinuose-nodulose;quadrate;elongate +
oblate;elongate +
undifferentiated +
plicate +  and smooth +
less +  and 1/2 +
not papillose +
mitrate +  and cucullate +
small;medium +
sulcate +  and smooth +
pendent +  and erect +
striate +  and smooth +
rarely ventricose ovoid;obloid rarely globose or cylindric +
thin +  and thick +
thick-walled +  and thin-walled +
quadrate +  and rectangular +
excurrent;percurrent;excurrent +
subpercurrent +
reniform +, elliptical +  and terete +
usually not markedly larger +
North America +, Mexico +, Central America +, South America +, Eurasia +, Africa +, Indian Ocean Islands +  and Australia +
reproduction +  and asexual +
dioicous +  and sexual +
papillose +, mammillose +  and smooth +
specialized +
dioicous +, autoicous +  and sexual +
concave +, broadly oblong-ovate +  and narrowly ovatelanceolate +
1;multistratose +
thick-walled +  and sinuose +
thick-walled +  and sinuose +
rostrate;conic;rostrate;conic;mammillate +
not +  and enlarged +
not +  and differentiated +
lanceolate;linear +
Kongel. Norske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr. (Trondheim) +
sigmoid +  and straight +
sigmoid +  and arcuate +
papillose +  and smooth +
short to long +
ornamented +  and smooth +
globose +
muticous;long-awned +
Dryptodon +  and Hydrogrimmia +
Grimmia subg. Litoneuron +
subgenus +
dark black-green;rusty-redbrown +