Grimmia torquata

Drummond

Musc. Scot. 2: no. 28. 1825,.

Synonyms: Grimmia pellucida Kindberg Grimmia prolifera Müller Hal. & Kindberg Grimmia pseudotorquata Kindberg Grimmia tortifolia Kindberg
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 27. Treatment on page 256. Mentioned on page 227, 247, 258.

Plants in soft, readily disintegrating cushions, yellow-green to brownish, occasionally light green, blackish to redbrown inside. Stems 1–4 cm, small central strand present. Leaves contorted when dry, patent when moist, lanceolate, 1.5–2 × 0.3–0.5 mm, keeled, margins slightly recurved proximally, plane distally, awns very short and smooth, occasionally absent, costa weak proximally, projecting on abaxial side; basal juxtacostal laminal cells linear, extremely sinuose, thick-walled; basal marginal laminal cells long-rectangular, thin-walled, hyaline; medial laminal cells rectangular, extremely sinuose, thick-walled; distal laminal cells 1-stratose. Gemmae brown, multicellular, present on the abaxial side of distal leaves. Sexual condition dioicous. Seta slightly curved, straight when dry, 3–5 mm. Capsule sporadically present, exserted, ovoid, brown, smooth, striate when dry and empty, exothecial cells thin-walled, annulus present, operculum rostrate, peristome teeth yellowish, short, split in distal part, weakly papillose. Calyptra mitrate.


Habitat: Damp, frequently vertical faces of acidic rock
Elevation: moderate to high elevations (200-4000 m)

Distribution

V27 355-distribution-map.gif

Greenland, Alta., B.C., Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., Ont., Que., Yukon, Alaska, Ariz., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Mont., Nev., Oreg., Wash., Wyo., Mexico, Eurasia, n Africa, Pacific Islands (Hawaii)

Discussion

Grimmia torquata is a montane-alpine species with a preference for shaded habitats. It grows in hemispherical cushions on steep, damp rock walls. Preferred substrates are granite, gneiss, quartzite, and schist. Its distribution reaches from near sea level in the Arctic to above 4000 m on Mexican and Hawaiian volcanoes. The species is easily recognized by its yellow-brown cushions of plants, which have contorted leaves when dry, and their brown gemmae, which are borne at the bases of older leaves. In densely shaded habitats, the cushions are light green; on exposed rock, they are usually brown. Although the species has a wide distribution, it is seldom present in quantity, usually growing in a small number of cushions in one habitat. Sporophytes are very rare worldwide and have not been found in eastern North America (H. A. Crum and L. E. Anderson 1981).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Grimmia torquata"
deciduous +  and persistent +
well-defined +
differentiated +
Roxanne I. Hastings +  and Henk C. Greven +
Drummond +
only rarely longer +
not papillose +
toothed +
sinuous +  and straight to sometimes +
sinuose-nodulose;quadrate;elongate +
oblate;elongate +
divided +
undifferentiated +
plicate +  and smooth +
less +  and 1/2 +
not papillose +
small;medium +
pendulous +  and cernuous +
striate +  and smooth +
thin +  and thick +
thick-walled +  and thin-walled +
quadrate +  and rectangular +
excurrent;percurrent;excurrent +
subpercurrent +
reniform +, elliptical +  and terete +
usually not markedly larger +
disintegrating +
1-stratose +  and multistratose +
Greenland +, Alta. +, B.C. +, Nfld. and Labr. +, N.W.T. +, Ont. +, Que. +, Yukon +, Alaska +, Ariz. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Idaho +, Mont. +, Nev. +, Oreg. +, Wash. +, Wyo. +, Mexico +, Eurasia +, n Africa +  and Pacific Islands (Hawaii) +
moderate to high elevations (200-4000 m) +
multicellular +
reproduction +  and asexual +
dioicous +  and sexual +
Damp, frequently vertical faces of acidic rock +
papillose +, mammillose +  and smooth +
thick-walled +  and sinuose +
specialized +
dioicous +, autoicous +  and sexual +
1.5mm;2mm +
keeled +  and lanceolate +
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
1;multistratose +
thick-walled +  and sinuose +
thick-walled +  and sinuose +
thick-walled +  and sinuose +
not +  and enlarged +
not +  and differentiated +
lanceolate;linear +
Musc. Scot. +
straight +  and curved +
sigmoid +  and arcuate +
papillose +  and smooth +
arcuate;cygneous +
short to long +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
papillose +
globose +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
muticous;long-awned +
Grimmia pellucida +, Grimmia prolifera +, Grimmia pseudotorquata +  and Grimmia tortifolia +
Grimmia torquata +
Grimmia subg. Rhabdogrimmia +
species +
yellow-green;brownish occasionally light green blackish +