Heterotheca sessiliflora subsp. echioides

(Bentham) Semple

Phytologia 73: 450. 1993.

IllustratedEndemic
Basionym: Chrysopsis echioides Bentham Bot. Voy. Sulphur, 25. 1844
Synonyms: Chrysopsis californica Elmer Chrysopsis camphorata Eastwood Chrysopsis vestita Greene Chrysopsis villosa var. camphorata (Eastwood) Jepson Chrysopsis villosa var. echioides (Bentham) A. Gray Heterotheca camphorata (Bentham) Shinners Heterotheca echioides Heterotheca sessiliflora var. bolanderioides Semple Heterotheca sessiliflora var. camphorata (Eastwood) Semple
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 20. Treatment on page 239. Mentioned on page 238, 240, 249.

Stems 1–20, (10–) 26–65 (–80) cm, sparsely to densely hispido-strigose (long-hispid hairs many), sparsely to moderately stipitate-glandular, sometimes sparsely hispido-strigose and densely stipitate-glandular distally. Cauline leaves: proximal subsesile to sessile, blades oblanceolate, (8–) 15–35 (–47) × (2.4–) 3.6–62 (–90) mm, margins entire, proximally with spreading, large, stiff strigose cilia, apices acute, faces sparsely to densely hispido-strigose, sparsely to densely stipitate-glandular; distal sessile, blades lanceolate, 6.5–40 × 1.5–7.7 mm, reduced distally, bases rounded, margins flat to ± undulate, abundantly spreading-ciliate, faces sparsely to densely hispido-strigose, sparsely to densely stipitate-glandular. Peduncle bracts 0–5, grading from leaves, reduced distally, those subtending head not larger and more leafy, faces sparsely to moderately hispido-strigose, moderately to densely stipitate-glandular. Involucres 6.3–10 (–12) mm. Ray-florets (6–) 8–14 (–17); laminae (4.5–) 5.8–9.8 (–13) mm. Disc-florets: corolla lobes sparsely pilose (hairs 0.2–1 mm). Cypsela faces moderately to densely strigose. 2n = 18, 36.


Phenology: Flowering (May–)Jul–Oct(–Dec).
Habitat: Chaparral scrub, arid prairies, pastures, fields, near washes, roadsides, disturbed areas, sandstone outcrops, sandy, gravelly soils
Elevation: 10–2100 m

Discussion

Subspecies echioides is the most common and widely distributed subspecies, growing in most of central and southern California west of the Sierra Nevada and deserts. It is characterized by its coarse, hispido-strigose indument on the stems and leaves, at least on the proximal portions of the plant. Three varieties have been recognized on the basis of leaf indument and, to a lesser degree, leaf margin undulation, stem height, and number of heads per shoot. Diploid var. echioides has coarse, spreading hairs on the distal stems, peduncles, leaves, and bracts. In the southern part of the range and in the Tehachapi Mountains, the distal stem leaves of var. echioides are somewhat undulate, but this is not the case farther north or in other varieties of the subspecies. It is the weedy race of the species and occurs throughout much of the range of the subspecies. It is difficult to distinguish from less typical individuals of var. camphorata (diploids and tetraploids), which is much less hispid and more stipitate-glandular distally on the stems. It occurs in the coastal ranges from Santa Clara to northern San Luis Obispo counties. The serpentine endemic var. bolanderioides has larger heads, more longer hairs on the corolla lobes than var. echioides, usually is much shorter in stature, and sometimes has whitish leaves due to the dense hispido-strigose hairs; it occurs mostly on hill and mountain tops surrounding San Francisco Bay. It is the only exclusively tetraploid member of the species. Individuals can be similar in appearance to plants of subsp. bolanderi, and in indument to var. camphorata and var. echioides. Intermediates between var. echioides and var. camphorata occur.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"[" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property."]" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

not tailed +, rounded +  and obtuse +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (4.7 cm47 mm <br />0.047 m <br />) +
6.2 cm62 mm <br />0.062 m <br /> (9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br />) +
distinct +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
subequal +
scarious +
3.6mm +  and 62mm +
usually triangular +  and linear +
usually deltate +  and lanceolate +
paniculiform +  and corymbiform +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
John C. Semple +
(Bentham) Semple +
rounded +
Chrysopsis echioides +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (4.7 cm47 mm <br />0.047 m <br />) +
6.2 cm62 mm <br />0.062 m <br /> (9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br />) +
0.65 cm6.5 mm <br />0.0065 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
lanceolate;acute;oblanceolate +
reduced +
1.5mm;7.7mm +
rugulose +  and muricate +
leafy +  and phyllary-like +
0.85 cm8.5 mm <br />0.0085 m <br /> (1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br />) +
0.18 cm1.8 mm <br />0.0018 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.85 cm8.5 mm <br />0.0085 m <br />) +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.18 cm1.8 mm <br />0.0018 m <br />) +
barbellulate +  and barbellate +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
rhizomatous +  and taprooted +
not 2-lipped +  and actinomorphic +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (0.95 cm9.5 mm <br />0.0095 m <br />) +
glabrous +  and glabrate +
ampliate +
0.55 cm5.5 mm <br />0.0055 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
compressed +  and obconic +
fertile +  and bisexual +
10–2100 m +
stipitate-glandular +, hispido-strigose +  and sparsely densely stipitate-glandular +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
Chaparral scrub, arid prairies, pastures, fields, near washes, roadsides, disturbed areas, sandstone outcrops, sandy, gravelly soils +
paniculiform +
in corymbiform arrays +  and singly +
indeterminate +
heterogamous +  and homogamous +
lanceolate +
reduced +
each +  and sessile +
attenuate +  and weakly clavate +
tan;rusty brown +
attenuate +  and clavate +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
campanulate;turbinate;campanulate;turbinate;cylindric +
0.63 cm6.3 mm <br />0.0063 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
1.05 cm10.5 mm <br />0.0105 m <br /> (1.85 cm18.5 mm <br />0.0185 m <br />) +
0.98 cm9.8 mm <br />0.0098 m <br /> (1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br />) +
0.17 cm1.7 mm <br />0.0017 m <br /> (0.24 cm2.4 mm <br />0.0024 m <br />) +
4.5mm;10.5mm +
0.58 cm5.8 mm <br />0.0058 m <br /> (0.98 cm9.8 mm <br />0.0098 m <br />) +
1mm;1.7mm +
sessile +  and petiolate +
proximal +  and basal +
erect;spreading +
lanceolate +, triangular +  and deltate +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (4.7 cm47 mm <br />0.047 m <br />) +
6.2 cm62 mm <br />0.062 m <br /> (9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br />) +
15mm;35mm +
stipitate-glandular +  and strigose +
flat +  and more or less undulate +
3.6mm +  and 62mm +
2-carpellate +
in 3 +  and 4 series +
glandular +, strigose +  and hispid +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
Flowering (May–)Jul–Oct(–Dec). +
lanceolate +  and linear-lanceolate +
ovate-oblanceolate +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
subulate;convex +
6 +  and 10 +
3 +  and 40 +
linear +  and linear-lanceolate or triangular +
0.025 cm0.25 mm <br />2.5e-4 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
exalbuminous +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
decumbent +  and ascending or erect +
1 +  and 20 +
26 cm260 mm <br />0.26 m <br /> (65 cm650 mm <br />0.65 m <br />) +
appendaged +  and truncate +
papillate +  and smooth +
Chrysopsis californica +, Chrysopsis camphorata +, Chrysopsis vestita +, Chrysopsis villosa var. camphorata +, Chrysopsis villosa var. echioides +, Heterotheca camphorata +, Heterotheca echioides +, Heterotheca sessiliflora var. bolanderioides +  and Heterotheca sessiliflora var. camphorata +
Heterotheca sessiliflora subsp. echioides +
Heterotheca sessiliflora +
subspecies +
70 cm700 mm <br />0.7 m <br /> (110 cm1,100 mm <br />1.1 m <br />) +
20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br /> (70 cm700 mm <br />0.7 m <br />) +
tree +, shrub +  and subshrub +