Hybanthus linearifolius

(Vahl) Urban

Symb. Antill. 5: 436. 1908.

Common names: Chancleta
Introduced
Basionym: Viola linearifolia Vahl in H. West, Bidr. Beskr. Ste Croix, 303. 1793
Synonyms: Viola stricta (Ventenat) Poir
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 6. Treatment on page 110. Mentioned on page 109.

Plants herbs, annual or perennial, 10–50 cm, from subligneous rhizome ca. 3 mm diam. Stems 1+, erect or ascending, branched, subglabrous or hairy. Leaves: proximal usually opposite, distal usually alternate (occasionally opposite), petiolate or sessile; stipules linear-subulate to lanceolate, 0.6–2 mm, usually glabrous; petiole 0–6 mm; blades: proximal obovate or elliptic-ovate, distal oblong-lanceolate to linearlanceolate, elliptic, or obovate-elliptic, 0.8–5.1 × 0.3–1.8 cm, base attenuate, margins subentire to remotely crenulate-dentate, ciliate, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces glabrate or puberulent. Inflorescences 1–2-flowered; peduncle ± horizontal or erect at anthesis, horizontal or pendant in fruit, 6–20 mm, puberulent; bracteoles present. Flowers: sepals appressed to corolla, lanceolate, ovatelanceolate, or oblong, margins ciliate, apex acuminate; petals: upper and laterals white, bluish, or purplish white, oblong, 3–5 mm, margins sometimes ciliate, apex deltate, often tinged purple or red, glabrous; lowest white, bluish, or purplish white, with basal purple patch, 5–9.5 mm, claw 3–4 × 1 mm, distal limb deltate to suborbiculate, ± flat to convex at anthesis, 4–10 mm wide, apex retuse or not, surfaces glabrous; presence of cleistogamous flowers not determined. Capsules globose or obtusely trigonous, 3–4.5 mm. Seeds 3–6, brownish black to black, ovoid or obovoid, subangular, 1.3–2 mm.


Phenology: Flowering Jan–Dec.
Habitat: Avocado groves and ruderal areas
Elevation: 1–3 m

Distribution

V6 190-distribution-map.jpg

Introduced; Fla., West Indies (Cuba), West Indies (Dominican Republic), West Indies (Greater Antilles), West Indies (Lesser Antilles), West Indies (Puerto Rico), West Indies (Virgin Islands)

Discussion

Hybanthus linearifolius appears to have first been documented in Florida in 2001 by K. A. Bradley from an avocado grove in Miami-Dade County (FTG 140029, 140268). The occurrence was cited by R. P. Wunderlin and B. F. Hansen 2003 (K. A. Bradley, pers. comm.). In 2009, it was collected in Palm Beach County, Florida, and identified at the Division of Plant Industry, FDACS; it was not accessioned (P. J. Anderson, pers. comm.).

Hno. Alain (1985–1997, vol. 3) reported that Hybanthus linearifolius occurs as an annual or a perennial; it is unknown if the species behaves as an annual or perennial in Florida.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"thick" is not a number.

... more about "Hybanthus linearifolius"
crenulate-dentate +
red;tinged purple +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (5.1 cm51 mm <br />0.051 m <br />) +
glabrous +, puberulent +  and glabrate +
0.3cm +  and 1.8cm +
R. John Little +
(Vahl) Urban +
crenulate-dentate +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (5.1 cm51 mm <br />0.051 m <br />) +
puberulent +  and glabrate +
acute +  and obtuse +
0.3cm;1.8cm +
Viola linearifolia +
overlapping +
lanceolate +  and oblanceolate ovate +
trigonous +  and globose +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (?) +
Chancleta +
sessile +  and petiolate +
deltate +  and suborbiculate more or less flat +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
sessile +  and petiolate +
Fla. +, West Indies (Cuba) +, West Indies (Dominican Republic) +, West Indies (Greater Antilles) +, West Indies (Lesser Antilles) +, West Indies (Puerto Rico) +  and West Indies (Virgin Islands) +
ovoid +  and spheroid +
1–3 m +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
cleistogamous +
3-valved +  and capsular +
loculicidal +
Avocado groves and ruderal areas +
stoloniferous +, rhizomatous +, taprooted +  and simple +
ovate +, orbiculate +, oblong +, elliptic +, angular-deltate +  and narrowed +
0.8cm;5.1cm +
puberulent +  and glabrate +
acute +  and obtuse +
0.3cm;1.8cm +
syngenesious +
crassinucellate +  and bitegmic +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
Flowering Jan–Dec. +
[2-]3[-5]-carpellate +
perennial +  and annual +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (50 cm500 mm <br />0.5 m <br />) +
elliptic-ovate +  and obovate +
Symb. Antill. +
unbranched +  and branched +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (?) +
subligneous +
subangular;obovoid;ovoid +
oblong +, ovatelanceolate +  and lanceolate +
subequal +
longitudinal +
Introduced +
elongated +
gibbous +
persistent +
ascending;erect +
not adnate +
0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
hollow +  and solid +
enlarged +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (5.1 cm51 mm <br />0.051 m <br />) +
glabrous +, puberulent +  and glabrate +
acute +  and obtuse +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br />) +
Viola stricta +
Hybanthus linearifolius +
Hybanthus +
species +
purplish white +, bluish +  and white +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
homophyllous +  and caulescent +
perennial +  and annual +
subshrub +  and herb +
hairy +  and glabrous +