Jatropha curcas

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 1006. 1753.

Common names: Physic or purging nut piñón
Introduced
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 12. Treatment on page 202. Mentioned on page 199.

Trees, to 10 [–15] m, monoecious. Stems erect, gray-green, much-branched, woody-succulent, glabrous; short-shoots absent; latex watery, colorless in younger branches, cloudy-whitish in older shoots. Leaves persistent, ± evenly distributed on long-shoots; stipules caducous, narrowly lanceolate, 5 mm, undivided; petiole 9–19 cm, not stipitate-glandular; blade round in outline, 9–15 × 9–15 cm, usually shallowly 3–5-lobed, rarely unlobed, base cordate, margins entire or glandular (young leaves), apex acuminate, membranous, surfaces glabrous; venation palmate. Inflorescences bisexual, terminal and subterminal, cymes; peduncle 5–10 cm; bracts 3–10 mm, margins entire, glabrous. Pedicels 1–3 mm. Staminate flowers: sepals distinct, ovate-elliptic, 4–6 × 2–3 mm, margins entire, apex acute, surfaces glabrous; corolla greenish yellow, campanulate, petals distinct or connate 1/4 length, 6–8 × 2–3.5 mm, glabrous abaxially, tomentose adaxially; stamens 10, ± in 2 whorls (5 + 5); filaments of both whorl connate to top or nearly so, outer whorl 3–4.5 mm, inner whorl 3–5 mm. Pistillate flowers resembling staminate, but sepals connate to 1/2 length, 5–7.5 × 2–5 mm; petals 4–5 × 2–2.5 (–3) mm; staminodes infrequent; carpels 3; styles connate most of length, 0.5–1.5 mm. Capsules ellipsoidal, 2.6–3 × 2.2–2.8 cm, drupaceous. Seeds black or black mottled with white spots, ellipsoidal, 18–20 × 11–13 mm; caruncle rudimentary. 2n = 22 (Puerto Rico).


Phenology: Flowering and fruiting spring (late summer–early fall).
Habitat: Disturbed sites.
Elevation: 0–50 m.

Distribution

Introduced; Fla., Mexico, Central America, also in West Indies, South America, Asia, Africa, Pacific Islands, Australia

Discussion

Jatropha curcas now has a circumtropical distribution but probably originated in Central America; it is naturalized in southern Florida. The latex of J. curcas is used for soap making and for medicinal purposes; the seeds are used for biofuel production.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Jatropha curcas"
connate +
nearly +  and top +
membranous +
Bijan Dehgan +
Linnaeus +
cordate +
9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
unlobed;3-5-lobed;round +
9cm;15cm +
2.6 cm26 mm <br />0.026 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
ellipsoidal +
2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br /> (2.8 cm28 mm <br />0.028 m <br />) +
Physic or purging nut +  and piñón +
greenish yellow +
Fla. +, Mexico +, Central America +, also in West Indies +, South America +, Asia +, Africa +, Pacific Islands +  and Australia +
0–50 m. +
pistillate +  and staminate +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.75 cm7.5 mm <br />0.0075 m <br />) +
stipitate-glandular +
subtending +
Disturbed sites. +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (?) +  and 0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (?) +
palmate +  and pinnate +
cloudy-whitish +  and colorless +
distributed +
persistent +
glandular +  and entire +
crenate +, repand +  and subentire +
extrastaminal +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (?) +  and 0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br /> (?) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
Purple (?) +, Red (?) +, Pink (?) +, Greenish yellow (?) +  and White (?) +
connate;distinct +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
tomentose +  and glabrous +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
not stipitate-glandular +
9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br /> (19 cm190 mm <br />0.19 m <br />) +
Flowering and fruiting spring (late summer–early fall). +
1-3-carpellate +
1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
ellipsoidal +
1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br /> (1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br />) +
distinct +
4mm (?) +  and 6mm (?) +
ovate-elliptic +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
Introduced +
free +, connate +  and distinct +
connate;distinct +
much-branched +
gray-green +
woody-succulent +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (?) +
connate +  and distinct +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (?) +  and 0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (?) +
Jatropha curcas +
Jatropha +
species +
5] +  and 2 +