Leptodontium viticulosoides var. sulphureum

(Müller Hal.) R. H. Zander

Bryologist 86: 156. 1983,.

Basionym: Trichostomum sulphureum (Sullivant) E. Britton Syn. Musc. Frond. 2: 626. 1851
Synonyms: Leptodontium excelsum Sullivant Leptodontium sulphureum var. panamense Lorentz Syrrhopodon excelsus Zygodon sullivantii
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 27. Treatment on page 576.

Stems to 5 cm. Leaves 2.0–2.5 mm, longlanceolate, not bordered by differentiated cells; apex narrowly acute; costa percurrent, abaxially smooth; distal laminal cells 8–11 µm wide, 1: 1 or medially longitudinally elongate to 2: 1, walls thickened throughout the distal portion of the leaf, lumens irregularly rounded, proximal cell-walls thickened and porose above but thin-walled below.


Habitat: Mainly on branches of balsam fir (Abies balsamea), also Sorbus
Elevation: moderate to high elevations (1700-2100 m)

Distribution

V27 827-distribution-map.gif

Ga., N.C., Tenn., Va., Mexico, Central America, South America

Discussion

Only archegoniate plants of var. sulphureum appear in the flora area. The description here is based solely on populations in that area; the variety has otherwise a large synonymy (see R. H. Zander 1972). The typical variety is widely distributed, but this one is known only from the New World. The southern Appalachian plants are flagellate (with distant leaves that become smaller distally) in comparison with most populations in Latin America but are matched by certain specimens from Mexico. The Appalachian plants are not autoicous as reported by H. A. Crum and L. E. Anderson (1981); perhaps galls, seen in some specimens, were mistaken for perigonia. The distribution of this taxon in the southern Appalachians is associated with the spread of the balsam woolly aphid; damaged, defoliating bark is preferentially colonized by this moss. The priority of the epithet “sulphureum” at the rank of variety as an autonym is due to the valid publication of the Lorentz name L. sulphureum var. panamense.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
channeled +, keeled +, oblong +  and lingulate +
of 1-2 rows +  and differentiated +
long-excurrent +  and short-excurrent +
1/3 (?) +  and 3/4 (?) +
Richard H. Zander +
(Müller Hal.) R. H. Zander +
crescent--shaped +
papillose +  and smooth +
usually slightly wider +
rectangular +
Trichostomum sulphureum +
obovoid +
mitrate +  and cucullate +
cleistocarpous +  and stegocarpous +
autoicous +, dioicous +  and sexual +
thin or;evenly collenchymatously thickened +
thick-walled +
6 (?) +  and 16 (?) +
elongate-rhomboid +  and elongate +
differentiated +
tomentose +  and bare +
obtuse +  and rounded +
1-stratose +  and porose +
Ga. +, N.C. +, Tenn. +, Va. +, Mexico +, Central America +  and South America +
moderate to high elevations (1700-2100 m) +
differentiated +
multicellular +
Mainly on branches of balsam fir (Abies balsamea), also Sorbus +
usually much longer +
yellow +  and orange-red or red +
thin-walled +  and porose +
orange +  and yellowish orange +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
concave;keeled;channeled;ovoid;lanceolate or lingulate +
not bordered +
reduced +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
rounded +
dentate +  and entire +
short-conic;short-rostrate +
photosynthetic +
hollow +  and simple +
columnar +  and 2-fid +
lateral +  and terminal +
lateral +  and terminal +
red +, orange +  and yellow +
consisting of 16 mostly 2 times cleft spiculose striate or papillose lanceolate teeth , , , , +  and rudimentary +
thin-walled +  and porose +
hyaline +  and brownish +
2 (?) +  and 5 (?) +
across base +  and differentiated +
long-decurrent +
straight +
elongate +
2 +  and 1 +
elongate +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
Leptodontium excelsum +, Leptodontium sulphureum var. panamense +, Syrrhopodon excelsus +  and Zygodon sullivantii +
Leptodontium viticulosoides var. sulphureum +
Leptodontium viticulosoides +
variety +
ovoid;cylindric +
thick-walled +
red +  and yellow +
stemless +  and perigoniate +
yellow;orangebrown distally +
occasionally smaller than the perichaetiate +