Lilium catesbaei

Walter

Fl. Carol., 123. 1788.

Common names: Pine lily
IllustratedEndemic
Synonyms: Lilium catesbaei subsp. asprellum Wherry Lilium catesbaei var. longii Fernald
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 26. Treatment on page 179. Mentioned on page 173, 175, 178.

Bulbs ovoid, 1.6–2.5 × 1.3–2.4 cm, 0.8–1.6 times taller than long, 2 years’ growth evident, newer bearing prominent basal leaves, older with abscission scars; scales few, loose, unsegmented or 2-segmented, longest 1–1.8 cm; stem roots usually present, often numerous. Stems to 0.9 m. Buds rounded in cross-section. Leaves scattered, ascending, distal appressed, 1.8–8.2 × 0.2–1.2 cm, 3.1–10.5 times longer than wide; blade narrowly elliptic, sometimes linear or slightly oblanceolate, margins not undulate, apex acute, acuminate especially in distal leaves; veins and margins ± smooth abaxially. Inflorescences occasionally umbellate, 1 (–3) -flowered. Flowers erect, not fragrant; perianth widely campanulate; sepals and petals recurved 2/5–1/2 along length from base, crimson or sometimes pink, distinctly clawed, apex very narrowly acute, nectar guides above claws yellow to pale-yellow and spotted maroon or magenta, ± equal; sepals not ridged abaxially, 8.2–12 × 1.2–1.9 cm; petals at proximal widest point much wider than sepals, 7.6–11.1 × 1.8–3.4 cm; stamens moderately exserted; filaments ± parallel to style, barely spreading, diverging 0°–12° from axis, often purple at base; anthers variously colored tan-orange, brown, peachy magenta, or pale greenish, 0.4–1.6 cm; pollen burnt orange or dark tan; pistil 7.6–10.5 cm; ovary 1.4–3.5 cm; style pale green, sometimes darker distally; pedicel 1.8–9.5 cm. Capsules often ridged along valve margins, 2.2–5.3 × 0.8–1.6 cm, 1.7–3.8 times longer than wide. Seeds not counted. 2n = 24.


Phenology: Flowering late summer–fall (late Jun–Oct) in most of range, sporadically spring and fall in peninsular Florida.
Habitat: Wet pine flatwoods and savannas, especially in pitcher plant (Sarracenia) bogs with Sphagnum
Elevation: 0–200 m

Distribution

V26 303-distribution-map.jpg

Ala., Fla., Ga., La., Miss., N.C., S.C., Va.

Discussion

The pine lily’s flower is the largest of any North American lily and one of the largest among our native monocots. In small plants it dwarfs and sometimes topples the slender stem. Leaves are small and relatively few and the bulb is petite, and thus resource limitation in smaller plants undoubtedly contributes to the wide range of fruit sizes within populations. In other North American members of the genus, small plants produce one or a few capsules, but typically these approach normal size.

Lilium catesbaei subsp. asprellum Wherry and L. catesbaei var. longii Fernald have been proposed to account for individuals with leaves concentrated toward the middle of the stem or somewhat wide and lacking basal leaves, respectively. These variants are not emphasized here since both are based primarily on vegetative features that vary greatly in most lilies. Isotypes of var. longii are unremarkable, though with somewhat wide leaves, and the broadly overlapping distribution of this variety with nominate populations (A. E. Radford et al. 1968) strongly suggests that such differences are primarily environmentally induced. Variety longii was described from Virginia, and Fernald’s observation that these northern plants lack basal leaves—which I have not investigated in the field—is unsurprising in those colder climates, and best considered in terms of the normal variation within a fairly wide-ranging species.

Although it is not yet rare, widespread alteration of native longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Miller) and slash pine (P. elliottii Engelmann) savanna, especially conversion to even-age pine plantations, is making steady inroads on populations of this most beautiful lily. It is adapted to frequent fires, and their suppression may contribute to this decline.

Lilium catesbaei is pollinated primarily by the palamedes swallowtail [Papilio palamedes (Drury), family Papilionidae], the only swallowtail that is widely endemic to this lily’s coastal plain habitat. Spicebush swallowtails (P. troilus Linnaeus) visit the pine lily less frequently, and their smaller size suggests that they are less effective pollinators than the larger palamedes.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"wide" is not a number."/5" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property."longest" is not a number."thicker" is not a number.

... more about "Lilium catesbaei"
pale greenish +, magenta +, brown +  and colored tan-orange +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (1.6 cm16 mm <br />0.016 m <br />) +
Acute (?) +  and Acuminate (?) +
Mark W. Skinner +
Walter +
whorled +, opposite +  and alternate +
visible +, exposed +  and hidden +
loculicidal +
dilated +
constricted +
reticulate-veined +  and parallel-veined +
paler +  and green and somewhat lighter +
oblanceolate +  and linear +
contractile +  and branching +
stained brown +, purplish +, yellowish +  and whitish +
0.8-1.6 times taller than long +
1.6cm +  and 2.5cm +
slanted +  and erect +
chunky +
1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br /> (2.4 cm24 mm <br />0.024 m <br />) +
2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br /> (5.3 cm53 mm <br />0.053 m <br />) +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.6 cm16 mm <br />0.016 m <br />) +
Pine lily +
1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br /> (8.2 cm82 mm <br />0.082 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
Ala. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, La. +, Miss. +, N.C. +, S.C. +  and Va. +
0–200 m +
translucent +, pale green +  and variable +
diverging +  and spreading +
connate-coroniform +  and dilated +
sessile +  and pedicellate +
diverging +  and spreading +
not fragrant +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
winged +, 3-valved +  and capsular +
brown;green +
indehiscent +, septicidal +  and loculicidal +
1.5cm;7.7cm +
oblong-obovate +
membranaceous +  and leathery +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (3.3 cm33 mm <br />0.033 m <br />) +
older +  and newer +
Wet pine flatwoods and savannas, especially in pitcher plant (Sarracenia) bogs with Sphagnum +
1(-3)-flowered +  and umbellate +
persistent +
papillose +  and smooth +
not undulate +
1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
not articulate +
1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br /> (9.5 cm95 mm <br />0.095 m <br />) +
zygomorphic +  and actinomorphic +
campanulate +
distinct +
included +  and strongly exserted +
differentiated +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (3.4 cm34 mm <br />0.034 m <br />) +
Flowering late summer–fall (late Jun–Oct) in most of range, sporadically spring and fall in peninsular Florida. +
oblong +  and 3-lobed +
7.6 cm76 mm <br />0.076 m <br /> (10.5 cm105 mm <br />0.105 m <br />) +
dark tan +  and burnt orange +
Fl. Carol., +
wrinkled +
thinner +  and thick +
2-segmented +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br />) +
starchy +  and fleshy +
abscission +
67 +  and 330 +
verrucose +
wedge +  and flattened +
pink +  and crimson +
distinct +
included;strongly exserted +
ridged +  and clawed +
differentiated +
1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (1.9 cm19 mm <br />0.019 m <br />) +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
adnate +  and free +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (90 cm900 mm <br />0.9 m <br />) +
1 +  and several +
darker +  and pale green +
elongating +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
Lilium catesbaei subsp. asprellum +  and Lilium catesbaei var. longii +
Lilium catesbaei +
species +
connate +  and distinct +
at tips +  and ascending +
sepaloid +  and petaloid +
narrower +
1 +  and 12 +
7.6 cm76 mm <br />0.076 m <br /> (11.1 cm111 mm <br />0.111 m <br />) +
1.8cm +  and 3.4cm +