Lindernia dubia

(Linnaeus) Pennell

Monogr. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1: 141. 1935.

Common names: Yellowseed false-pimpernel lindernie douteuse
WeedyIllustrated
Basionyms: Gratiola dubia Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 1: 17. 1753
Synonyms: Ilysanthes dubia (Linnaeus) Barnhart I. inaequalis (Walter) Pennell I. riparia Rafinesque Lindernia anagallidea (Michaux) Pennell L. dubia var. anagallidea (Michaux) Cooperrider L. dubia var. inundata (Pennell) Pennell L. dubia var. riparia (Rafinesque) Fernald
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 17. Treatment on page 355. Mentioned on page 354, 356.

Annuals. Stems erect, ascending, or prostrate, not matted, usually rooting at proximal nodes, 1.5–27 (–38) cm. Leaves cauline, thin; petiole absent; blade spatulate, lanceolate, oblanceolate, elliptic, ovate, or obovate, (1–) 5–37 × (0.5–) 3–18 mm, palmately 3–5-veined or 1-nerved, not leathery, margins entire or remotely, sometimes coarsely, toothed; distal well developed or much reduced. Pedicels 0.5–31 mm, 1/2–5 times subtending leaves. Flowers chasmogamous or cleistogamous; chasmogamous: sepals 0.7–6.1 mm, connate to 1/8 lengths; corolla-tube and adaxial lip lavender or blue to white, abaxial lobes white with purple to blue markings, tube 2.5–8 mm, adaxial lip 1/2 abaxial; stamens 2; staminodes each with appendage and distal segment. Capsules ellipsoid, often obliquely, sometimes ovoid or subglobular, 1.4–6.3 (–7.5) × 1.2–3.3 mm. Seeds usually 6-angled, usually ribbed. 2n = 18.


Phenology: Flowering year-round.
Habitat: Wet ditches, meadows, borders of ponds, lakes, streams, moist to wet disturbed habitats.
Elevation: 0–2600 m.

Distribution

B.C., N.B., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Ala., Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America, in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia

Discussion

In Asia, Lindernia dubia is considered a noxious weed in rice paddies, where it has become resistant to some commonly used herbicides.

Lindernia dubia shows extreme morphological plasticity, especially in vegetative characters. This has led to the naming of species and varieties that have been accepted or not in recent treatments (for example, D. Q. Lewis 2000). B. A. Berger (2005) examined variation within the L. dubia complex and concluded that the recognition of these taxa is unwarranted.

Variety inundata, an estuarine form from the intertidal zone along the Atlantic Coast, continues to be recognized in several databases. However, W. R. Ferren Jr. and A. E. Schuyler (1980) described the clinal variation in these intertidal populations, ranging from typical Lindernia dubia to this form, with such variation sometimes evident on submerged and emergent parts of the same plant.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"thin" is not a number.

... more about "Lindernia dubia"
Deborah Q. Lewis +
(Linnaeus) Pennell +
Gratiola dubia +
1-nerved +  and 3-5-veined +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (3.7 cm37 mm <br />0.037 m <br />) +
obovate +, ovate +, elliptic +, oblanceolate +, lanceolate +  and spatulate +
not leathery +
3mm;18mm +
campanulate +
0.63 cm6.3 mm <br />0.0063 m <br /> (0.75 cm7.5 mm <br />0.0075 m <br />) +
0.14 cm1.4 mm <br />0.0014 m <br /> (0.63 cm6.3 mm <br />0.0063 m <br />) +
subglobular +, ovoid +  and ellipsoid +
0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br /> (0.33 cm3.3 mm <br />0.0033 m <br />) +
Yellowseed false-pimpernel +  and lindernie douteuse +
blue +, violet +, punct +, bluish with darker purple +, purplish +  and white +
B.C. +, N.B. +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Ala. +, Ariz. +, Ark. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, Nebr. +, Nev. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, N.Dak. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, S.Dak. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Vt. +, Va. +, Wash. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +, Mexico +, West Indies +, Central America +, South America +, in Europe +, Asia +, Africa +  and Australia +
0–2600 m. +
cleistogamous +  and chasmogamous +
poricidal +  and septicidal +
Wet ditches, meadows, borders of ponds, lakes, streams, moist to wet disturbed habitats. +
elliptic;triangular-ovate +
remotely +  and entire +
tenuinucellate +  and unitegmic +
orthotropous +
1/2-5 times subtending leaves +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (3.1 cm31 mm <br />0.031 m <br />) +
Flowering year-round. +
Monogr. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia +
6-angled +
0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br /> (0.61 cm6.1 mm <br />0.0061 m <br />) +
Weedy +  and Illustrated +
papillate +
geniculate +
ascending +  and erect +
weakly +  and 4-angled +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (27 cm270 mm <br />0.27 m <br />) +
neither +, clavate +, capitate +  and 2-lobed +
Ilysanthes dubia +, I. inaequalis +, I. riparia +, Lindernia anagallidea +, L. dubia var. anagallidea +, L. dubia var. inundata +  and L. dubia var. riparia +
Lindernia dubia +
Lindernia +
species +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
perennial +  and annual +
9 +, 8 +  and 7 +