Listera convallarioides

(Swartz) Nuttall ex Elliott

Sketch Bot. S. Carolina 2: 494. 1823.

Common names: Broad-leaved twayblade
IllustratedEndemic
Basionym: Epipactis convallarioides Swartz Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Nya Handl. 21: 232. 1800
Synonyms: Bifolium convallarioides (Swartz) Nieuwland Diphryllum convallarioides (Swartz) Kuntze Listera eschscholziana Chamisso Ophrys convallarioides (Swartz) W. Wight
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 26. Treatment on page 590. Mentioned on page 587, 588, 589, 591.

Plants 5–37 cm, somewhat stoloniferous. Stems green, succulent, glabrous. Leaves: blade green, broadly ovate to elliptic, oval or suborbiculate, 2–7 × 1.5–5.8 cm, apex obtuse to rarely acute or apiculate. Inflorescences 5–20-flowered, lax, 20–120 mm; floral bracts semitranslucent, rhombic-ovate to lanceolate, 3–5 × 1–2.5 mm, apex acute to acuminate; peduncle and rachis densely whitish glandular-pubescent. Flowers yellowish green, sometimes faintly tinged with purple; pedicels slender, 2.5–7 mm, glandular-pubescent; ovary glandular-pubescent, becoming glabrate as it matures; sepals and petals reflexed away from column and lip; dorsal sepal ovatelanceolate to elliptic, 4.5–5 × 1.5–2 mm, apex obtuse to acute; lateral sepals lanceolate, falcate, 4.5–5.5 × 1.5–1.8 mm, apex acute to obtuse; petals linear, falcate, 4–5 × 0.8–1 mm; lip cuneate, apex dilated and shallowly notched, lateral lobes rounded, with small tooth in sinus, tapering to short, slender claw, with indistinct triangular tooth on either side of base above claw, 8–13 × 5–7 mm, margins minutely bristly-ciliate; column arcuate, slender, 2.5–3.5 (–4) × 1 mm, apex slightly expanded. Capsules ellipsoid, 8 × 5 mm, essentially glabrous. 2n = 36.


Phenology: Flowering Jun–Sep.
Habitat: Rich humus in open woods to boggy meadows, soil circumneutral or at most only mildly acid, prefers cool soil, widespread across northern part of continent, extending southward only at high elevations
Elevation: 100–2600 m

Distribution

V26 1204-distribution-map.jpg

St. Pierre and Miquelon, Alta., B.C., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Alaska (including Aleutian Islands), Ariz., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Maine, Mich., Minn., Mont., Nev., N.H., N.Y., Oreg., S.Dak., Utah, Vt., Wash., Wis., Wyo.

Discussion

Listera convallarioides has a relatively large flower compared to most of the other listeras. It crosses with L. auriculata to produce a natural hybrid L. ×veltmanii Case, which is discussed under 3. L. auriculata.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Listera convallarioides"
self-pollination +
Notched (?) +, Dilated (?) +, Acute (?) +  and Obtuse (?) +
expanded +
Lawrence K. Magrath +  and Ronald A. Coleman +
(Swartz) Nuttall ex Elliott +
Epipactis convallarioides +
indehiscent +
not +  and articulate +
conduplicate +  and plicate +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
broadly ovate +  and elliptic oval or suborbiculate +
1.5cm;5.8cm +
8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br /> (?) +
ellipsoid +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (?) +
0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
2.5mm +  and 3.5mm +
slender +
Broad-leaved twayblade +
St. Pierre and Miquelon +, Alta. +, B.C. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Alaska (including Aleutian Islands) +, Ariz. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Idaho +, Maine +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mont. +, Nev. +, N.H. +, N.Y. +, Oreg. +, S.Dak. +, Utah +, Vt. +, Wash. +, Wis. +  and Wyo. +
0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
100–2600 m +
semitranslucent +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
3-merous +, sessile +  and pedicellate +
tinged with purple +  and yellowish green +
horizontal +  and semierect +
glabrate;glandular-pubescent +
subglobose;ovoid;subglobose;ovoid;ellipsoid +
Rich humus in open woods to boggy meadows, soil circumneutral or at most only mildly acid, prefers cool soil, widespread across northern part of continent, extending southward only at high elevations +
lateral +  and terminal +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br />) +
0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br /> (0.55 cm5.5 mm <br />0.0055 m <br />) +
falcate +  and lanceolate +
subopposite +  and opposite +
cauline +  and basal +
reduced +
not +  and deflexed +
cuneate +
larger +
differing in form and color +
glabrate +  and glandular-pubescent +
1-many-flowered +  and cymose +
pendent +  and erect +
glandular-pubescent +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
glandular-pubescent +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
Flowering Jun–Sep. +
Sketch Bot. S. Carolina +
2-100-flowered +
glandular-pubescent +
aerial +  and subterranean +
slender +
minute +
free +, distinct +, adnate +  and connate +
foliaceous +
not +  and alike +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
branched +, or +  and simple +
pendent +  and erect +
proliferous +
slender +  and stout +
succulent +
concave +  and convex +
Bifolium convallarioides +, Diphryllum convallarioides +, Listera eschscholziana +  and Ophrys convallarioides +
Listera convallarioides +
species +
triangular +
aquatic +, lithophytic +, terrestrial +  and epiphytic +
saprophytic +, photosynthetic +  and mycotrophic +