Mammillaria dioica

K. Brandegee

Erythea 5: 115. 1897.

Common names: California fishhook cactus strawberry cactus
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 4. Treatment on page 253. Mentioned on page 248, 254.

Plants unbranched or branched; branches 0–50. Roots diffuse, upper portion not enlarged. Stems nearly spheric to more often cylindric or long cylindric, 5–30 × 5–7 cm, firm; tubercles 5–12 × 3–7 mm; axils woolly, bearing 4–15 bristles (0 in young growth) as long as tubercles; cortex and pith not mucilaginous; latex absent. Spines 14–26 per areole, pinkish or reddish-brown to black, glabrous; radial spines 11–22 per areole, usually white, bristlelike, 5–7 mm, stiff; central spines (1–) 3–4 per areole, abaxial 1 porrect, hooked, longer, stouter, adaxial central spines ascending with radial spines; subcentral spines 0. Flowers 10–22 mm; outermost tepals entire or short fringed; inner tepals cream, usually with pinkish or reddish midstripes, longer in bisexual flowers, 5.4 mm diam.; stigma lobes yellow to greenish yellow or brownish green, 8 mm. Fruits bright scarlet, clavate or ovoid, 10–25 (–35) × 10 mm, juicy only in fruit walls; floral remnant persistent. Seeds black, 0.8 × 0.6 mm, pitted; testa hard; anticlinal cell-walls straight (not undulate); interstices conspicuously wider than pit diameters; pits bowl-shaped. 2n = 66.


Phenology: Flowering spring (Mar–May); fruiting summer.
Habitat: California coastal scrub, Colorado subdivision of Sonoran desert scrub, rocky slopes
Elevation: 10-1500 m

Distribution

V4 463-distribution-map.gif

Calif., Mexico (Baja California)

Discussion

In an inland population in California, Mammillaria dioica was found to be functionally gynodioecious (F. R. Ganders and H. Kennedy 1978), with flowers of some plants bisexual while those of other individuals bear only functionally female flowers with sterile anthers. Coastal populations of the species were not studied and might be “trioecious” with staminate, pistillate, and bisexual flowers on different plants (B. D. Parfitt 1985).

Plants of Mammillaria dioica in Mexico are both tetraploid and hexaploid (M. A. T. Johnson 1978).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

... more about "Mammillaria dioica"
cushionlike +
needlelike +  and bristlelike +
circular to linear +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (3.1 cm31 mm <br />0.031 m <br />) +
deciduous +  and persistent +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
plumose +  and hairlike +
0.001 cm0.01 mm <br />1.0e-5 m <br /> (0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br />) +
Allan D. Zimmerman +  and Bruce D. Parfitt +
K. Brandegee +
hardened +
triangular +
0 +  and 50 +
4 +  and 15 +
curved +  and straight +
terete +  and hooked +
proliferating +
flattened +  and cylindric +
California fishhook cactus +  and strawberry cactus +
not mucilaginous +
Calif. +  and Mexico (Baja California) +
10-1500 m +
not separating +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (5.2 cm52 mm <br />0.052 m <br />) +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (7.5 cm75 mm <br />0.075 m <br />) +
unconnected +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br />) +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
0.6cm;3.5cm +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (2.6 cm26 mm <br />0.026 m <br />) +
bright scarlet +
indehiscent +
persistent +, long +  and deciduous +
10mm;25mm +
ovoid +  and clavate +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (?) +
California coastal scrub, Colorado subdivision of Sonoran desert scrub, rocky slopes +
5.4 cm54 mm <br />0.054 m <br /> (?) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
1.5mm;8.5mm +
conspicuously wider +
deciduous +  and persistent +
rudimentary +
flat +  and terete +
nearly +  and microscopic +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
tuberculate +
fluted;spheric;depressed-spheric or club-shaped +
reddish +  and pinkish +
deciduous +  and persistent +
Flowering spring (Mar–May) +  and fruiting summer. +
bowl--shaped +
not mucilaginous +
ridgelike +  and nipple--shaped +
bristly +  and woolly +
3;2;2;30 +
triangular +
arillate +  and strophiolate +
0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (?) +
obovoid;pyriform;obovoid;pyriform;lenticular-reniform;comma--shaped;spheric +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (?) +
0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
white +, reddish-brown +  and black +
straight +  and curved +
deciduous +  and persistent +
11 (?) +  and 22 (?) +
annulate-ridged +, hairlike +, daggerlike +, subulate +  and acicular +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
hard +  and rigid +
decurrent +
unsegmented +
12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br /> (20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br />) +
purplish +, green +  and gray-green +
5cm;30cm +
cylindric +, long +  and spheric +
5cm;7cm +
yellow +  and greenish yellow or brownish green +
tuberculate +
Chilita +, Cochemiea +, Dolichothele +, Ebnerella +, Leptocladodia +, Neomammillaria +  and Phellosperma +
adventitious +
tuberlike +
epipetric +  and epiphytic +
Mammillaria dioica +
Mammillaria +
species +
fringed +  and entire +
flat +  and concave +
dull +  and glossy +
not confluent +
5mm +  and 12mm +
cylindric +, conic +  and pyramidal +
3mm +  and 7mm +
not enlarged +
straight +
sinuate +
branched +  and unbranched +
epiphytic;epiphytic;epiphytic +
barrel-shaped +  and spheric +