Mammillaria grahamii

Engelmann

Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 3: 262. 1856.

Common names: Arizona fishhook cactus Graham’s fishhook cactus Graham’ s nipple cactus
Synonyms: Mammillaria grahamii var. oliviae (Orcutt) L. D. Benson Mammillaria microcarpa Britton & Rose Neomammillaria milleri
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 4. Mentioned on page 98, 247, 249, 251.

Plants branched or unbranched; branches 0–9 (–17). Roots diffuse; upper portion not enlarged. Stems spheric to cylindric, usually (4–) 5–16 (–30) × (2.3–) 3.5–6.8 cm, firm; tubercles 4.8–12 (–15) × 3.5–7 mm; axils appearing naked; cortex and pith not mucilaginous; latex absent. Spines (19–) 26–33 (–38) per areole, glabrous; radial spines 17–35 per areole whitish or pale tan, bristlelike, 6–12 × 0.1–0.15 mm, stiff; central spines (2–) 3–4 per areole, 1–3 (–4) spines at least hooked (uncommonly 0 hooked), reddish to purplish brown to almost black (rarely golden brown), abaxial 1 porrect, others inconspicuous, appressed against radial spines, hookless porrect spines (3–) 9.5–25 × 0.1–0.5 mm; subcentral spines 1–3 per areole, adaxial to central spines, sometimes transitional to central spines, usually straight and barely distinguishable from radial spines. Flowers ca. 2 × 1.8–3.5 (–4.5) cm; outermost tepal margins minutely fringed; inner tepals bright-rose-pink or rose-purple, 10–16 × 4–8 mm; stigma lobes yellow-green to green, 3–7 mm. Fruits green, turning bright red, scarlet, or carmine (rarely yellowish), elongating until clavate after color change to red complete, 12–29 × 5–8 mm, juicy only in fruit walls; floral remnant persistent. Seeds black, 0.8–1 × 0.7–0.9 mm, pitted; testa hard, brittle; anticlinal cell-walls straight; interstices conspicuously wider than pit diameters; pits bowl-shaped. 2n = 22.


Phenology: Flowering Apr–Sep; fruiting Sep–Mar.
Habitat: Chihuahuan and Sonoran desert scrub, grasslands, interior chaparral, oak woodlands, alluvial slopes, hills, canyons, silty, sandy, gravelly, or rocky soils of igneous or calcareous origin
Elevation: 80-1400 m

Distribution

V4 460-distribution-map.gif

Ariz., Calif., N.Mex., Tex., Mexico (Chihuahua), Mexico (Sonora)

Discussion

Mammillaria grahamii is geographically variable. Past attempts to distinguish larger or western individuals as M. microcarpa have proven arbitrary.

All spine hooks on a plant may be oriented in the same direction, a trait sometimes mistakenly said to be limited to Mammillaria mainiae. Plants with short, straight central spines (rarely a mixture of both hooked and straight spines on the same stem) occur in some populations; they have been called M. oliviae or M. grahamii var. oliviae. The name Mammillaria microcarpa Engelmann has been widely used but was not validly published until after M. grahamii.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

... more about "Mammillaria grahamii"
cushionlike +
needlelike +  and bristlelike +
circular to linear +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (3.1 cm31 mm <br />0.031 m <br />) +
pale tan +  and whitish +
deciduous +  and persistent +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
1 +  and 3 +
plumose +  and hairlike +
0.001 cm0.01 mm <br />1.0e-5 m <br /> (0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br />) +
Allan D. Zimmerman +  and Bruce D. Parfitt +
Engelmann +
hardened +
triangular +
0 +  and 9 +
curved +  and straight +
terete +  and hooked +
proliferating +
flattened +  and cylindric +
Arizona fishhook cactus +, Graham’s fishhook cactus +  and Graham’ s nipple cactus +
not mucilaginous +
Ariz. +, Calif. +, N.Mex. +, Tex. +, Mexico (Chihuahua) +  and Mexico (Sonora) +
80-1400 m +
not separating +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (5.2 cm52 mm <br />0.052 m <br />) +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (4.5 cm45 mm <br />0.045 m <br />) +
unconnected +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (?) +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
1.8cm;3.5cm +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (2.6 cm26 mm <br />0.026 m <br />) +
after color change;red +
indehiscent +
persistent +, long +  and deciduous +
12mm;29mm +
clavate +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
Chihuahuan and Sonoran desert scrub, grasslands, interior chaparral, oak woodlands, alluvial slopes, hills, canyons, silty, sandy, gravelly, or rocky soils of igneous or calcareous origin +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.6 cm16 mm <br />0.016 m <br />) +
conspicuously wider +
deciduous +  and persistent +
rudimentary +
flat +  and terete +
nearly +  and microscopic +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
tuberculate +
fluted;spheric;depressed-spheric or club-shaped +
inconspicuous +
deciduous +  and persistent +
Flowering Apr–Sep +  and fruiting Sep–Mar. +
bowl--shaped +
not mucilaginous +
ridgelike +  and nipple--shaped +
Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts +
bristly +  and woolly +
3;2;2;30 +
triangular +
arillate +  and strophiolate +
0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
obovoid;pyriform;obovoid;pyriform;lenticular-reniform;comma--shaped;spheric +
0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br /> (0.09 cm0.9 mm <br />9.0e-4 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.95 cm9.5 mm <br />0.0095 m <br />) +
0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
reddish +  and purplish brown +
straight +  and curved +
deciduous +  and persistent +
9.5mm +  and 25mm +
17 (?) +  and 35 (?) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
hard +  and rigid +
0.01 cm0.1 mm <br />1.0e-4 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
decurrent +
unsegmented +
2.3 cm23 mm <br />0.023 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
purplish +, green +  and gray-green +
5cm;16cm +
spheric +  and cylindric +
3.5cm;6.8cm +
yellow-green +  and green +
tuberculate +
Mammillaria grahamii var. oliviae +, Mammillaria microcarpa +  and Neomammillaria milleri +
adventitious +
tuberlike +
epipetric +  and epiphytic +
Mammillaria grahamii +
Mammillaria +
species +
flat +  and concave +
dull +  and glossy +
not confluent +
1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
4.8mm +  and 12mm +
cylindric +, conic +  and pyramidal +
3.5mm +  and 7mm +
not enlarged +
straight +
sinuate +
unbranched +  and branched +
epiphytic;epiphytic;epiphytic +
barrel-shaped +  and spheric +