Mammillaria prolifera var. texana

(Engelmann) Borg

Cacti, 16. 1937.

Common names: Texas nipple cactus grape cactus hair-covered cactus
Illustrated
Basionym: Mammillaria pusilla var. texana Engelmann Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 3: 261. 1856 (as Mamillaria)
Synonyms: Mammillaria multiceps Salm-Dyck
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 4. Mentioned on page 254.

Plants branched; branches 5–20+. Roots fibrous, upper portion not enlarged. Stems spheric to cylindric-clavate, 3–9 × 1.2–5 cm, somewhat flaccid; tubercles 7–10 × 3.4–5 mm; axils mostly bearing sparse white hairs and slender bristles equaling or exceeding tubercle length; cortex and pith not mucilaginous; latex absent. Spines 30–50 per areole, white to yellow or reddish sometimes tipped dark, puberulent; radial spines 25–40 per areole, white to pale-yellow, hairlike, 3–12 × 0.01–0.02 mm, soft, strongly contrasting with relatively rigid, colored central spines; central spines 5–12 per areole, spreading in all directions, straight, 4–9 × 0.11–0.17 mm, puberulent; subcentral spines 0. Flowers 1–1.8 × 0.8–1.7 cm; outermost tepal margins entire; inner tepals whitish to creamy yellowish with pinkish or greenish brown midstripes, 6.5–8 × 2–3 mm; stigma lobes whitish to yellowish, 1.5–4 mm. Fruits bright red, obovoid to clavate-cylindric, 8–20 × 4–5 mm, juicy only in fruit walls; floral remnant persistent. Seeds black, 1–1.3 × 1–1.3 mm, pitted; testa hard; anticlinal cell-walls weakly undulate to almost straight; interstices wider than pit diameters; pits bowl-shaped. 2n = 44.


Phenology: Flowering spring (Mar–May).
Habitat: Tamaulipan thorn scrub, oak-juniper woodlands, gravel, limestone crevices, or litter beneath vegetation, cliffs, hills, valleys, plains
Elevation: 0-600 m

Distribution

V4 465-distribution-map.gif

Tex., Mexico (Coahuila), Mexico (Nuevo León), Mexico (San Luis Potosí), Mexico (Tamaulipas)

Discussion

North of Mexico, the hairlike radial spines of Mammillaria prolifera provide an instant means of identifying this species, even without reproductive material. The species is diploid and tetraploid in Mexico, tetraploid in Texas, and mostly hexaploid in the Greater Antilles with tetraploids persisting at least on Hispaniola (M. A. T. Johnson 1978). Spine color and strength of spines form the basis of taxonomic distinction in M. prolifera in the broad sense (D. R. Hunt 1987).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
cushionlike +
needlelike +  and bristlelike +
circular to linear +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (3.1 cm31 mm <br />0.031 m <br />) +
deciduous +  and persistent +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
plumose +  and hairlike +
0.001 cm0.01 mm <br />1.0e-5 m <br /> (0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br />) +
Allan D. Zimmerman +  and Bruce D. Parfitt +
(Engelmann) Borg +
hardened +
Mammillaria pusilla var. texana +
triangular +
5 +  and 20 +
4mm +  and 9mm +
terete +  and hooked +
0.011 cm0.11 mm <br />1.1e-4 m <br /> (0.017 cm0.17 mm <br />1.7e-4 m <br />) +
proliferating +
flattened +  and cylindric +
Texas nipple cactus +, grape cactus +  and hair-covered cactus +
not mucilaginous +
Tex. +, Mexico (Coahuila) +, Mexico (Nuevo León) +, Mexico (San Luis Potosí) +  and Mexico (Tamaulipas) +
0-600 m +
not separating +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (5.2 cm52 mm <br />0.052 m <br />) +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (7.5 cm75 mm <br />0.075 m <br />) +
unconnected +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br />) +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
0.8cm;1.7cm +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (2.6 cm26 mm <br />0.026 m <br />) +
indehiscent +
persistent +, long +  and deciduous +
8mm;20mm +
obovoid +  and clavate-cylindric +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
Tamaulipan thorn scrub, oak-juniper woodlands, gravel, limestone crevices, or litter beneath vegetation, cliffs, hills, valleys, plains +
0.65 cm6.5 mm <br />0.0065 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
deciduous +  and persistent +
rudimentary +
flat +  and terete +
nearly +  and microscopic +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
tuberculate +
fluted;spheric;depressed-spheric or club-shaped +
greenish brown +  and pinkish +
deciduous +  and persistent +
Flowering spring (Mar–May). +
bowl--shaped +
not mucilaginous +
ridgelike +  and nipple--shaped +
bristly +  and woolly +
3;2;2;30 +
triangular +
arillate +  and strophiolate +
0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.13 cm1.3 mm <br />0.0013 m <br />) +
obovoid;pyriform;obovoid;pyriform;lenticular-reniform;comma--shaped;spheric +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.13 cm1.3 mm <br />0.0013 m <br />) +
Illustrated +
0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
white +  and pale-yellow +
straight +  and curved +
deciduous +  and persistent +
3mm +  and 12mm +
25 (?) +  and 40 (?) +
hairlike +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
hard +  and rigid +
0.001 cm0.01 mm <br />1.0e-5 m <br /> (0.002 cm0.02 mm <br />2.0e-5 m <br />) +
decurrent +
unsegmented +
12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br /> (20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br />) +
purplish +, green +  and gray-green +
3cm;9cm +
spheric +  and cylindric-clavate +
1.2cm;5cm +
whitish +  and yellowish +
tuberculate +
Mammillaria multiceps +
adventitious +
tuberlike +
epipetric +  and epiphytic +
Mammillaria prolifera var. texana +
Mammillaria prolifera +
variety +
fringed +  and entire +
flat +  and concave +
dull +  and glossy +
not confluent +
7mm +  and 10mm +
cylindric +, conic +  and pyramidal +
3.4mm +  and 5mm +
not enlarged +
straight +
sinuate +
epiphytic;epiphytic;epiphytic +
barrel-shaped +  and spheric +