Mammillaria tetrancistra

Engelmann

Amer. J. Sci. Arts, ser. 2, 14: 337. 1852.

Common names: Common fishhook cactus
Illustrated
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 4. Treatment on page 251. Mentioned on page 93, 95, 98, 248, 252.

Plants branched; branches 1–several. Roots fleshy taproots, to 24 cm, 5–8 cm diam. Stems cylindric to ovoid-cylindric, commonly 5–15 (–25) × 3.5–7 (–10) cm, flaccid; tubercles 4 mm diam.; axils short woolly; cortex and pith mucilaginous; latex absent. Spines 21–64 per areole, dark or light colored, depending largely on substrate color, glabrous (to hoary); radial spines 30–46 (–60) per areole, white, bristlelike, 6–10 × 0.09–0.15 mm, stiff; central spines 1–3 (–4) per areole, porrect or strongly projecting, usually hooked, (6–) 13–18 (–25) × (0.2–) 0.3 (–0.4) mm; subcentral spines several, often 12+ per areole, radiating in all directions, often resembling supplementary ring of radial spines, barely distinguishable from radial spines, stouter, longer and dark tipped or purplish. Flowers 2.5 × 2.5–3.5 cm; outermost tepal margins long fringed; inner tepals pink to rose-purple, margins sometimes paler or white, at least proximally, 24–26 × 4 mm; stigma lobes yellow-green to green. Fruits bright red, ellipsoid or cylindric to clavate, (8–) 15–30 × 5–10 mm, juicy only in fruit walls; floral remnant quickly deciduous, leaving conspicuous abscission scar. Seeds black, conspicuously strophiolate, 1.4–2.4 × 1.4 mm, pitted and rugose; testa hard; anticlinal cell-walls straight (not undulate); interstices narrower than pit diameters; pits bowl-shaped; strophiole tan, large, corky. 2n = 22.


Phenology: Flowering Apr, Jul; fruiting Feb–Apr, Sep–Oct.
Habitat: Mojave and Sonoran Deserts, alluvium and outcrops, valley floors, hills, mountainsides
Elevation: 100-1500 m

Distribution

V4 459-distribution-map.gif

Ariz., Calif., Nev., Utah, Mexico (Baja California), Mexico (Sonora)

Discussion

Mammillaria tetrancistra extends farther into hyper-arid California deserts than any other species of Mammillaria.

Without the unique seeds, its identification requires detailed comparison with both Mammillaria grahamii and M. viridiflora. Although M. viridiflora is ecogeographically segregated (more mesophytic), the other taxa grow intermingled at many sites in southwestern Arizona. Pushing the side of the stems with a stick or stone allows crude field identification for two commonly confused species: stems of M. tetrancistra are soft and flabby, whereas stems of M. grahamii are firm.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Mammillaria tetrancistra"
cushionlike +
needlelike +  and bristlelike +
circular to linear +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (3.1 cm31 mm <br />0.031 m <br />) +
deciduous +  and persistent +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
plumose +  and hairlike +
0.001 cm0.01 mm <br />1.0e-5 m <br /> (0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br />) +
Allan D. Zimmerman +  and Bruce D. Parfitt +
Engelmann +
hardened +
triangular +
1 +  and several +
1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br />) +
curved +  and straight +
13mm +  and 18mm +
projecting +  and porrect +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (?) +
proliferating +
flattened +  and cylindric +
Common fishhook cactus +
mucilaginous +
Ariz. +, Calif. +, Nev. +, Utah +, Mexico (Baja California) +  and Mexico (Sonora) +
100-1500 m +
not separating +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (5.2 cm52 mm <br />0.052 m <br />) +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (7.5 cm75 mm <br />0.075 m <br />) +
unconnected +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (?) +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
2.5cm;3.5cm +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (2.6 cm26 mm <br />0.026 m <br />) +
indehiscent +
persistent +, long +  and deciduous +
15mm;30mm +
cylindric +  and clavate +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
Mojave and Sonoran Deserts, alluvium and outcrops, valley floors, hills, mountainsides +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
1.5mm;8.5mm +
deciduous +  and persistent +
rudimentary +
flat +  and terete +
nearly +  and microscopic +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
tuberculate +
fluted;spheric;depressed-spheric or club-shaped +
white +  and paler +
24mm;26mm +
deciduous +  and persistent +
Flowering Apr, Jul +  and fruiting Feb–Apr, Sep–Oct. +
bowl--shaped +
mucilaginous +
ridgelike +  and nipple--shaped +
Amer. J. Sci. Arts, ser. +
bristly +  and woolly +
3;2;2;30 +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (24 cm240 mm <br />0.24 m <br />) +
triangular +
abscission +
conspicuous +
strophiolate +
0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
0.14 cm1.4 mm <br />0.0014 m <br /> (0.24 cm2.4 mm <br />0.0024 m <br />) +
rugose +  and pitted +
obovoid;pyriform;obovoid;pyriform;lenticular-reniform;comma--shaped;spheric +
1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br /> (?) +
Illustrated +
0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
white +, light colored +  and dark +
straight +  and curved +
deciduous +  and persistent +
6mm +  and 10mm +
30 (?) +  and 46 (?) +
annulate-ridged +, hairlike +, daggerlike +, subulate +  and acicular +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
purplish +  and dark tipped +
distinguishable +
hard +  and rigid +
0.009 cm0.09 mm <br />9.0e-5 m <br /> (0.015 cm0.15 mm <br />1.5e-4 m <br />) +
decurrent +
unsegmented +
7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
purplish +, green +  and gray-green +
5cm;15cm +
cylindric +  and ovoid-cylindric +
3.5cm;7cm +
yellow-green +  and green +
tuberculate +
Chilita +, Cochemiea +, Dolichothele +, Ebnerella +, Leptocladodia +, Neomammillaria +  and Phellosperma +
adventitious +
tuberlike +
epipetric +  and epiphytic +
Mammillaria tetrancistra +
Mammillaria +
species +
flat +  and concave +
dull +  and glossy +
not confluent +
3mm +  and 25mm +
cylindric +, conic +  and pyramidal +
2mm +  and 9mm +
straight +
sinuate +
epiphytic;epiphytic;epiphytic +
barrel-shaped +  and spheric +