Odontites vulgaris

Moench

Methodus, 439. 1794.

Common names: Red bartsia
WeedyIntroducedIllustrated
Basionyms: Euphrasia odontites Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 2: 604. 1753
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 17. Treatment on page 503. Mentioned on page 504.

Stems 15–50 cm; unbranched or branched, branches 3–12 pairs, arising near base of stem, ascending. Leaves: blade lanceolate, 20–50 x 5–10 mm, marginal teeth 3–5, apex blunt, surfaces hispid. Racemes: 4–10 pairs of flowers; bracts foliaceous, 5–15 x 2–4 mm. Pedicels 2–3 mm. Flowers 8–10 mm; calyx often with purple markings, 4–6 mm, lobes less than 1/2 length of whole, puberulent; corolla-tube light purple, glabrescent, lobes pink, villous, abaxial lobes 3–4 x 2–3 mm, adaxial lip 4–5 mm; anthers slightly exserted, yellow, equal in size and length; style exserted, 8–10 mm. Capsules compressed-ellipsoid, 7–8 x 3–4 mm. Seeds 1–2 mm, reticulate. 2n = 18, 20.


Phenology: Flowering Jun–Aug.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, disturbed areas.
Elevation: 0–700 m.

Distribution

Introduced; St. Pierre and Miquelon, Alta., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Maine, Mass., Mich., N.H., N.Y., Vt., W.Va., Wis., Eurasia

Discussion

Accurate identification of species of Odontites has been made difficult by a combination of complex taxonomic history, extreme variability in morphological characters across geographic ranges, and phenotypic plasticity (M. Bollinger 1996). The native range of O. vulgaris spans the Iberian Peninsula to Scandinavia and into Siberia. The expansion of its range in the New World is likely to continue into maritime grasslands (N. M. Hill and C. S. Blaney 2009) and elsewhere (Randolph County, West Virginia; Grafton s.n., WVA).

Largely due to taxonomic confusion among species that co-occur in its native range, specimens in the New World have been identified as either Odontites ruber Gilibert, O. serotinus Dumortier, or O. vernus Dumortier. The subspecific names of O. serotinus have been synonymized with names of other species, and O. serotinus, an illegitimate name, was treated as a synonym of O. vulgaris by M. Bollinger (1996). Odontites vulgaris differs from O. vernus in ploidy level, the latter being tetraploid (4n = 40), and by degree of branching (Bollinger), the latter with fewer branches occurring at acute angles. Branching characters are difficult to discern in preserved material; specimens from North America appear to be O. vulgaris. Reported chromosome counts indicate New World Odontites specimens are diploid (E. H. Moss and J. G. Packer 1983); undocumented tetraploids may also exist.

Red bartsia is classified as a prohibited noxious weed in the Canadian Seeds Act and Regulations.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"equal" is not a number."lengthofwhole" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Odontites vulgaris"
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
Christopher P. Randle +
Moench +
Euphrasia odontites +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
lanceolate +
not leathery +  and not fleshy +
5mm;10mm +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
ascending +  and arising +
3 +  and 12 +
campanulate +  and flattened +
not accrescent +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
compressed-ellipsoid +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
Red bartsia +
purple +  and pink +
St. Pierre and Miquelon +, Alta. +, Man. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Maine +, Mass. +, Mich. +, N.H. +, N.Y. +, Vt. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +  and Eurasia +
0–700 m. +
2 +  and 1 +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
indehiscent +, septicidal +, loculicidal +  and dehiscence +
Roadsides, fields, disturbed areas. +
club--shaped +
axillary +  and terminal +
deciduous +
villous +  and puberulent +
deltate +
subequal +
lobed +, toothed +  and entire +
tenuinucellate +  and unitegmic +
campylotropous-like +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
Flowering Jun–Aug. +
20 +  and 32 +
fusiform +
Weedy +, Introduced +  and Illustrated +
subequal +
branched +  and unbranched +
aerial +  and subterranean +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (50 cm500 mm <br />0.5 m <br />) +
not fleshy +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
Odontites vulgaris +
Odontites +
species +