Orobanche californica subsp. californica

IllustratedEndemic
Synonyms: Aphyllon violaceum Eastwood Myzorrhiza violacea (Eastwood) Rydberg Orobanche comosa var. violacea (Eastwood) Jepson O. grayana var. nelsonii Munz O. grayana var. violacea (Eastwood) Munz
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 17. Treatment on page 479. Mentioned on page 478, 481.

Plants simple or branched from below-ground, 5–20 (–27) cm, portion proximal to inflorescence 1–14 cm, slender. Inflorescences corymbs, sometimes subcorymbose or subcapitate racemes, 4–8 cm; bracts purple-tinged, drying blackish purple. Pedicels 0–10 mm. Calyces 8–17 (–24) mm, lobes purple-tinged, drying blackish purple, subulate to linear-subulate, 6–20 mm. Corollas dark purple or red-purple distally, (22–) 25–40 (–55) mm, tube slender, abruptly widening toward throat; throat 8–10 mm wide at base of lobes; lips 10–14 (–18) mm, abaxial lobes lanceolate to oblong, 3–4 (–5) mm wide, apex acute to obtuse, adaxial lobes oblong-ovate, apex broadly obtuse to acute, shallowly retuse, or erosulate. 2n = 48.


Phenology: Flowering (Mar–)May–Sep(–Oct).
Habitat: Rocky banks, sand flats, tidal marshes, coastal prairies and slopes.
Elevation: 0–100 m.

Distribution

B.C., Calif., Oreg., Wash.

Discussion

Subspecies californica is uncommon on rocky banks, sand flats, and slopes near the sea from southwestern British Columbia, San Juan Islands, and adjacent mainland Washington, and to coastal prairie and bluff tops in California from Humboldt County south to San Luis Obispo County. Available habitat in the southern portion of the range is adversely affected by infestations of Carpobrotus edulis (Aizoaceae).

The primary host for subsp. californica is Grindelia (Asteraceae). Reports on Ambrosia chamissonis, Erigeron glaucus, and Heterotheca villosa need confirmation.

Subspecies californica is fairly discrete and easily recognizable throughout most of its range. The deep lavender to reddish purple exterior of the corolla, long corolla tube, and long lips are unique to this taxon. The maritime habitat is shared with several other taxa in California: Orobanche californica subsp. grandis, O. parishii subsp. brachyloba, and O. robbinsii; however, the microhabitats and primary hosts of each differ markedly, with subsp. californica the only one of these primarily on coastal prairie, especially blufftop (marine terrace) habitat, and primarily parasitic on Grindelia.

Morphological variation within subsp. californica is partially correlated with geography. Along the central California coast, plants usually have corollas 35–55 mm with broad lobes, apically rounded, and deep purple. The plants of coastal Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia have shorter and narrower corollas (25–35 mm), often with pointed lobes and slightly paler color.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

lanceolate +  and oblong +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
oblong-ovate +
glabrous +  and villous +
glandular-pubescent +
L. Turner Collins +, Alison E. L. Colwell +  and George Yatskievych +
Chamisso & Schlechtendal +
enlarged +
oblong;lanceolate;oblong;lanceolate;deltate;triangular;ovate +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
not leathery +, not +  and fleshy +
blackish purple;purple-tinged +
appressed +  and spreading +
less lanceolate +  and oblanceolate +
1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br /> (2.4 cm24 mm <br />0.024 m <br />) +
pallid +  and dark purple pink yellow or white +
divided +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br />) +
ovoid;cylindric-ovoid +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (5.5 cm55 mm <br />0.055 m <br />) +
pallid +, tinged pink +  and purple yellow or blue +
red-purple;dark purple +
Bent (?) +  and Tubular (?) +
constricted +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
spikelike +
B.C. +, Calif. +, Oreg. +  and Wash. +
0–100 m. +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
indehiscent +, septicidal +, loculicidal +  and dehiscence +
Rocky banks, sand flats, tidal marshes, coastal prairies and slopes. +
axillary +  and terminal +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (14 cm140 mm <br />0.14 m <br />) +
branched +  and simple +
pallid cream +  and nearly white +
deciduous +
1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br /> (1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br />) +
cream +  and pinkish or purplish tinged or pink +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br />) +
blackish purple +  and purple-tinged +
loosely ascending +  and recurved +
glandular-pubescent +
subulate +  and linear-subulate +
erosulate +  and entire +
lobed +, toothed +  and entire +
tenuinucellate +  and unitegmic +
campylotropous-like +
spikelike +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
Flowering (Mar–)May–Sep(–Oct). +
subcorymbose +
spikelike +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
branched +  and unbranched +
inconspicuous +
coralloid +
stout +  and slender +
500 +  and 2000 +
prismatic +, ovoid +  and oblong-ellipsoid +
5 +  and 4 +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
subequal +
yellow +  and white +
aerial +  and subterranean +
capitate +  and crateriform-peltate +
clavate +  and 2-4-lobed +
Aphyllon violaceum +, Myzorrhiza violacea +, Orobanche comosa var. violacea +, O. grayana var. nelsonii +  and O. grayana var. violacea +
Orobanche californica subsp. californica +
Orobanche californica +
subspecies +
8mm;10mm +
cream;pinkish or purplish tinged or pink +
glandular-puberulent +
slender +
widening +
branched +  and simple +
perennial +  and annual +
holoparasitic +  and hemiparasitic +
stout +  and slender +