Sp. Pl. 2: 609. 1753.
Plants 1.5–20 cm. Leaves: basal 2–5, blade lanceolate, 5–25 x 2–6 mm, 1-pinnatifid, margins of adjacent lobes nonoverlapping or slightly overlapping distally, 2-serrate, surfaces glabrous; cauline 3–6, blade lanceolate, 5–30 x 3–10 mm, 1-pinnatifid, margins of adjacent lobes nonoverlapping or slightly overlapping distally, 2-serrate, surfaces glabrous. Racemes simple, 1 or 2, exceeding basal leaves, each 5–10-flowered; bracts lanceolate, 10–15 x 1–2 mm, pinnatifid, proximal margins entire, distal 1-serrate or 2-serrate, surfaces glabrous. Pedicels 3–10 mm. Flowers: calyx 4.5–7 mm, glabrous, lobes 5, triangular, 1.5–2.5 mm, apex entire, glabrous; corolla 12–15 mm, tube yellow, 8–10 mm; galea bicolored, yellow proximally, dark red to purple distally, 4–5 mm, beakless, margins entire medially and distally, apex arching slightly over abaxial lip; abaxial lip yellow, 1.5–3 mm. 2n = 16.
Phenology: Flowering Jul.
Habitat: Wet meadows, along streams, tundras, flood plains.
Elevation: 0–2500 m.
Greenland, Alta., Man., Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., Nunavut, Ont., Que., Europe (Norway), Europe (Sweden), Asia, Atlantic Islands (Iceland)
Pedicularis flammea is often confused with P. oederi, which also has red- or purple-tipped galeas. Compared to other Pedicularis species, including P. oederi, flowers of P. flammea are much smaller.
Pedicularis flammea is a boreal-arctic species found only in northern parts of many Canadian provinces.