Pedicularis ornithorhynchos

Bentham in W. J. Hooker

Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 108. 1838.

Common names: Bird's-beak or ducksbill lousewort
IllustratedEndemic
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 17. Treatment on page 526. Mentioned on page 512, 527.

Plants 10–25 cm. Leaves: basal 2–10, blade lanceolate to oblanceolate, 15–80 x 3–10 mm, 1-pinnatifid or 2-pinnatifid, margins of adjacent lobes nonoverlapping or slightly overlapping distally, entire or serrate, surfaces glabrous; cauline 0–4, blade lanceolate, 5–40 x 3–15 mm, 1-pinnatifid or 2-pinnatifid, margins of adjacent lobes nonoverlapping or slightly overlapping distally, serrate, surfaces glabrous. Racemes simple, 1–5, exceeding basal leaves, each 4–15-flowered; bracts trullate, sometimes lanceolate, 5–13 x 1–3 mm, moreorless lobed, margins entire or serrate, surfaces glabrous or tomentose. Pedicels 3–6 mm. Flowers: calyx 6.5–9 mm, tomentose, lobes 5, triangular, 2.5–4 mm, apex entire or serrulate, glabrous or ciliate; corolla 12–15 mm, tube lavender, 8–9 mm; galea lavender, 4–6.5 mm, beaked, beak straight, 2–6.5 mm, margins entire medially and distally, apex extending beyond abaxial lip; abaxial lip pink, 6–8 mm. 2n = 16.


Phenology: Flowering Jul–Sep.
Habitat: Moist alpine meadows, heathlands, tundras.
Elevation: 200–2400 m.

Discussion

Pedicularis ornithorhynchos is commonly misspelled in the literature as P. ornithorhyncha. As this is the orthography used in floras since C. L. Hitchcock et al. (1955–1969, vol. 4), it also appears on recent herbarium specimens. How this error arose is unclear because the same misspelling also appears on specimens older than 1959. Another occasional misspelling is ornithorhynchus.

The galeas of Pedicularis ornithorhynchos taper into long conical, uncoiled beaks that are very conspicuous above the horizontally expanded lateral lobes of the abaxial lips. No more than 15 flowers are borne on the capitate heads, with the internodes greatly expanding as the fruits develop. Compared to the basal leaves, the cauline leaves of the inflorescence are very few and much shorter, but otherwise similar in form. This alpine and tundra species occurs in the Alaskan panhandle and Coast Mountains as well as the coast ranges of mainland British Columbia south into the northern Cascade Range as far south as Mount Rainier; it is also recorded from alpine areas on Vancouver Island and the Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands), British Columbia.

Pedicularis ornithorhynchos is pollinated by bumblebees that hang inverted from the galea and cause release of pollen by wing-muscle vibrations (L. W. Macior 1973).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
beakless +  and beaked +
serrulate +  and entire +
ciliate +  and glabrous +
Bruce W. Robart +
Bentham in W. J. Hooker +
straight +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.65 cm6.5 mm <br />0.0065 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
2-pinnatifid;1-pinnatifid;lanceolate;2-pinnatifid;1-pinnatifid;lanceolate;oblanceolate +
not leathery +  and not fleshy +
3mm;15mm +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br />) +
lobed +, lanceolate +  and trullate +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
tubular +, campanulate +  and symmetric +
0.65 cm6.5 mm <br />0.0065 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
fleshy +  and woody +
whorled +  and alternate +
Bird's-beak or ducksbill lousewort +
white +, yellow +, red +, purple +  and pink +
1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
B.C. +, Alaska +  and Wash. +
200–2400 m. +
hairy +  and glabrous +
2 +  and 1 +
indehiscent +, septicidal +, loculicidal +  and dehiscence +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.65 cm6.5 mm <br />0.0065 m <br />) +
Moist alpine meadows, heathlands, tundras. +
axillary +  and terminal +
spiral +, whorled +, alternate +  and opposite +
deciduous +
basal +  and cauline +
triangular +
entire +  and serrate +
overlapping +  and nonoverlapping +
crenate +  and serrate +
tenuinucellate +  and unitegmic +
campylotropous-like +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
Flowering Jul–Sep. +
Fl. Bor.-Amer. +
4-15-flowered;simple +
5 +  and 100 +
5 +  and 2 +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
subequal +
aerial +  and subterranean +
Woolly (?) +, Villous (?) +, Hispid (?) +  and Glabrous (?) +
tomentose;glabrous;glabrous;glabrous +
Elephantella +  and Pediculariopsis +
Pedicularis ornithorhynchos +
Pedicularis +
species +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +