Sp. Pl. 2: 607. 1753.
Plants 3–10 cm. Leaves: basal 2–7, blade elliptic, 9–20 x 4–7 mm, 1-pinnatifid or 2-pinnatifid, margins of adjacent lobes nonoverlapping or slightly overlapping distally, dentate, surfaces glabrous; cauline 2–6, blade elliptic to triangular, 5–16 x 1–5 mm, 1-pinnatifid or 2-pinnatifid, margins of adjacent lobes nonoverlapping or slightly overlapping, dentate, surfaces glabrous. Racemes simple, 1–5, exceeding basal leaves, each 2–10-flowered; bracts trullate to triangular, 3–15 x 6–11 mm, 2-pinnatifid, margins serrate, surfaces glabrous. Pedicels 0.7–3 mm. Flowers: calyx 9–14 mm, glabrous, lobes 5, triangular, 1.5–3.5 mm, apex pinnatifid, entire, glabrous; corolla 24–30 mm, tube pink, 15–25 mm; galea pink, 7–11 mm, beakless, margins entire medially, 1-toothed distally, apex arching slightly over abaxial lip; abaxial lip pink, 5.5–9 mm. 2n = 16 (Europe).
Phenology: Flowering Jul–Aug.
Habitat: Wet meadows.
Elevation: 30–80 m.
Introduced; Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), Europe
Pedicularis sylvatica is considered by L. Brouillet et al. (http://data.canadensys.net/vascan/) to be introduced in the flora area.