Peltandra virginica

(Linnaeus) Schott in H. W. Schott and S. L. Endlicher

in H. W. Schott and S. L. Endlicher,Meletemata Botanica 19. 1832.

Common names: Arrow arum t Arrow arum u tTuckahoe peltandre
IllustratedEndemic
Basionym: Arum virginicum Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 2: 966. 1753
Synonyms: Peltandra luteospadix Fernald Peltandra tharpii F. A. Barkley
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 22.

Leaves: petiole green to purple-green, 38–98 cm; blade medium green, not glaucous or slightly glaucous abaxially, 9–57 × (2.5–) 5–15 (–31) cm, larger on average and more variable in shape than in Peltandra sagittifolia; lateral-veins of 2 thicknesses. Inflorescences 7–25 cm; peduncle 20–56 cm; spathe tube green outside, paler green within, closed; 1.5–3.5 (–5.2) × 0.7–1.9 cm; spathe blade green to green with white or yellow-green along margins, loosening only to slightly open to fully open at anthesis, (5.9–) 8.5–21.4 × 0.5–2.3 cm, margins undulate; spadix tapering apically, more than 1/2 to almost as long as spathe. Flowers: pistillate flowers pale green to greenish white, ovaries 1-locular; ovules 1–4; staminate portion of spadix white, cream white, or pale-yellow; sterile flowers between pistillate and staminate flowers; sterile tip 0.5–2 cm. Infructescences enclosed by spathe tube, rotting away to release fruits. Fruits pea green to mottled green or very dark purple-green, 10–18 × 6–16 mm. Seeds 1–2 (–4), embedded in mucilage, 8–17 mm. 2n = 112.


Phenology: Flowering spring–late summer, also fall and winter in the extreme southern areas of its range.
Habitat: Wetland habitats, including bogs, swamps, freshwater to low-salinity tidal marshes, and ditches, as well as along the edges of ponds, lakes, and rivers
Elevation: 0–1200 m

Distribution

V22 263-distribution-map.jpg

Ont., Que., Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.

Discussion

Leaf shape is highly variable in Peltandra virginica, and different forms have been recognized taxonomically, both at the specific and infraspecific levels. Since Because leaf shape varies within populations and even within an individual clump of plants, P. virginica is treated here as a single taxon.

Populations of Peltandra virginica are most common along the Atlantic Coastal Plain, but its range appears to be actively expanding. Since 1978, the species was reported as new to the floras of Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, West Virginia, and Wisconsin, and introduced populations may persist in Oregon and California. Fruits and seeds of P. virginica are a food for wildlife, especially waterfowl, and their use by migratory birds is an important factor in the spread of this species.

The flowers of Peltandra virginica are pollinated by a chloropid fly, Elachiptera formosa (Diptera: Chloropidae), which uses the inflorescence as a mating site and a larval food source. Eggs are deposited within the inflorescence, and the emerging larvae feed on the rotting male portion of the spadix. The fruits are primarily dispersed by water, although animals also play a role.

Peltandra virginica may have been an important food plant for eastern Native Americans, especially in the mid-Atlantic coastal region from Pennsylvania to Virginia, where the plants are now common and grow in large, dense populations. Historical accounts mention use of the rhizomes as well as the leaves, fruits, and seeds as food.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Peltandra virginica"
Sue A. Thompson +
(Linnaeus) Schott in H. W. Schott and S. L. Endlicher +
cordate;hastate;sagittate +
Arum virginicum +
not peltate +  and simple +
pinnate or palmate-netted +  and parallel +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (31 cm310 mm <br />0.31 m <br />) +
9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br /> (57 cm570 mm <br />0.57 m <br />) +
glaucous +  and not glaucous +
lanceolate;widely ovate +
larger +  and medium +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (?) +
5cm;15cm +
Arrow arum +, t Arrow arum +, u tTuckahoe +  and peltandre +
underground +
Ont. +, Que. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Vt. +, Va. +, W.Va. +  and Wis. +
0–1200 m +
staminate +  and pistillate +
pale green;greenish white +
proximal +  and apical +
sterile +  and unisexual +
dark purple-green +, very +, pea green +  and mottled green +
10mm;18mm +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1.6 cm16 mm <br />0.016 m <br />) +
connate +  and distinct +
Wetland habitats, including bogs, swamps, freshwater to low-salinity tidal marshes, and ditches, as well as along the edges of ponds, lakes, and rivers +
7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br /> (25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br />) +
clustered +, alternate +  and solitary +
undulate +
with sterile flowers +  and naked +
20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br /> (56 cm560 mm <br />0.56 m <br />) +
green;purple-green +
38 cm380 mm <br />0.38 m <br /> (98 cm980 mm <br />0.98 m <br />) +
Flowering spring–late summer, also fall and winter in the extreme southern areas of its range. +
pale-yellow +, cream white +  and white +
in H. W. Schott and S. L. Endlicher,Meletemata Botanica +
1 +  and 2 +
/2 +  and 1 +
tapering +
5.9 cm59 mm <br />0.059 m <br /> (8.5 cm85 mm <br />0.085 m <br />) +
8.5 cm85 mm <br />0.085 m <br /> (21.4 cm214 mm <br />0.214 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (2.3 cm23 mm <br />0.023 m <br />) +
deciduous +  and persistent +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (5.2 cm52 mm <br />0.052 m <br />) +
paler green +  and green +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.9 cm19 mm <br />0.019 m <br />) +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
embedded in spadix +  and sessile +
discoid +  and capitate +
hemispheric +
flat-topped +
Peltandra luteospadix +  and Peltandra tharpii +
Peltandra virginica +
Peltandra +
species +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
floating +  and emergent +