Penstemon gracilis

Nuttall

Gen. N. Amer. Pl. 2: 52. 1818.

Common names: Lilac or slender beardtongue
Endemic
Synonyms: Penstemon gracilis subsp. wisconsinensis Pennell P. gracilis var. wisconsinensis (Pennell) Fassett
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 17. Treatment on page 205. Mentioned on page 185, 188, 206.

Herbs. Caudex herbaceous. Stems ascending to erect, (15–) 20–50 cm, retrorsely hairy and glandular-pubescent, not glaucous. Leaves basal and cauline, not leathery, glabrous or sparsely, rarely densely, puberulent; basal and proximal cauline 25–75 × 4–15 mm, blade ovate to oblanceolate or lanceolate, base tapered, margins subentire or ± serrate, apex obtuse to acute; cauline 4–7 pairs, sessile, 25–80 (–90) × (2–) 4–10 (–15) mm, blade lanceolate to linear, base truncate to clasping, margins entire or serrulate to serrate, apex acute to acuminate. Thyrses interrupted, sometimes continuous, cylindric, (3–) 5–17 (–21) cm, axis glandular-pubescent, verticillasters (2 or) 3–5 (–7), cymes 2–6-flowered, 2 per node; proximal bracts lanceolate, 5–95 × 1–12 mm, margins entire or serrulate, rarely serrate; peduncles and pedicels ascending to erect, glandular-pubescent. Flowers: calyx lobes ovate to lanceolate, 4–6 × 1.5–2 mm, glandular-pubescent; corolla light lavender to lavender, with violet nectar guides, tubular, 14–22 mm, glandular-pubescent externally, moderately white-pilose internally abaxially, tube 4–6 mm, throat slightly inflated, 4–6 mm diam., prominently 2-ridged abaxially; stamens included, pollen-sacs divergent, navicular, 1–1.3 mm, dehiscing completely, connective splitting, sides glabrous, sutures papillate; staminode 11–12 mm, reaching orifice, 0.4–0.5 mm diam., tip slightly recurved, distal 7–9 mm densely villous, hairs golden yellow, to 1.5 mm; style 9–12 mm. Capsules 6–8 × 3–4 mm, glabrous. 2n = 16.


Phenology: Flowering May–Aug.
Habitat: Tallgrass, mixed grass, and shortgrass prairies, foothills.
Elevation: 300–2100 m.

Distribution

Alta., B.C., Man., Ont., Sask., Colo., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Mich., Minn., Mont., Nebr., N.Mex., N.Dak., S.Dak., Wis., Wyo.

Discussion

Glabrous-leaved plants are characteristic on the prairies of most of the central and northern Great Plains, and in the foothills of the Central, Northern, and Canadian Rocky mountains. Puberulent-leaved plants from the Driftless Area of Wisconsin have been named var. wisconsinensis. Puberulent-leaved plants also occur in Alberta and in North Dakota (specimens from Barnes, Benton, Eddy, Pierce, Ramsey, Wells, and Williams counties have been seen), sometimes with glabrous-leaved plants. Penstemon gracilis is introduced in Indiana (K. Yatskievych 2000).

The roots of Penstemon gracilis are used by the Lakota of the northern Great Plains for protection from snakebites (D. E. Moerman 1998).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"/4+timescorollathroat" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Penstemon gracilis"
Acute (?) +  and Acuminate (?) +
Craig C. Freeman +
Nuttall +
glandular-pubescent +
alternate +, subopposite +, whorled +  and opposite +
glaucescent +
alternate +, opposite +, whorled +, helical +  and subopposite +
cauline +, proximal +  and basal +
rarely +, not glaucous +, glabrate +, pubescent +, hairy +, glandular-lanate +, glandular-pubescent +, puberulent +, glandular +  and glabrous +
not +  and leathery +
truncate;clasping +
tapered +
lanceolate;linear +
? (?) +  and ? (?) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
glandular-pubescent +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
short-tubular +  and short-campanulate +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br /> (9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
petiolate +  and sessile +
Lilac or slender beardtongue +
personate +, not personate +, bilabiate +  and symmetric +
light lavender to lavender +
white-pilose +  and glandular-pubescent +
ampliate +
1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br /> (2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br />) +
2-6-flowered +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
scale-like +  and not needlelike +
Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, Ont. +, Sask. +, Colo. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mont. +, Nebr. +, N.Mex. +, N.Dak. +, S.Dak. +, Wis. +  and Wyo. +
drupe-like +
300–2100 m. +
curved +  and straight +
1 +  and 4 +
Tallgrass, mixed grass, and shortgrass prairies, foothills. +
golden yellow +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
membranous +
terminal +  and axillary +
persistent +  and deciduous +
basal +  and cauline +
puberulent +, sparsely +  and glabrous +
not leathery +
orbiculate;linear;orbiculate;linear;truncate;oblanceolate;obovate;oblong;elliptic;round;lanceolate;ovate +
serrate +, serrulate +  and entire +
glutinous +
glandular-ciliolate +, hairy +, puberulent +, glabrescent +, glabrous +  and glandular-pubescent +
serrate +  and subentire +
axile +  and parietal +
basal +, apical +  and superior +
tenuinucellate +, unitegmic +  and hemitropous +
campylotropous +, hemianatropous +  and anatropous +
ascending +  and erect +
glandular-pubescent +
glandular-pubescent +
5 +  and 4 +
Flowering May–Aug. +
navicular-sigmoid +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.13 cm1.3 mm <br />0.0013 m <br />) +
1/5 +  and 2/3 +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (9.5 cm95 mm <br />0.095 m <br />) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
Gen. N. Amer. Pl. +
minute +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
Black (?) +, Gray (?) +, Brown (?) +  and Tan (?) +
angled +  and slightly rounded +
0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
included +  and exserted +
1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br /> (?) +  and 1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (?) +
subalternate +, alternate +, whorled +  and opposite +
glutinous +
climbing +  and scrambling +
sprawling +, creeping +  and prostrate +
ascending;erect +
20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br /> (50 cm500 mm <br />0.5 m <br />) +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
papillate +
denticulate +
Penstemon gracilis subsp. wisconsinensis +  and P. gracilis var. wisconsinensis +
Penstemon gracilis +
Penstemon sect. Penstemon +
species +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
2-ridged +  and inflated +
not constricted +
continuous +  and interrupted +
17 cm170 mm <br />0.17 m <br /> (21 cm210 mm <br />0.21 m <br />) +
cylindric +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (17 cm170 mm <br />0.17 m <br />) +
straight +
gibbous +  and not spurred +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
cauline +  and proximal +