Phalaris caroliniana

Walter
Common names: Carolina canarygrass
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 24.

Plants annual. Culms to 150 cm. Ligules 1.5-7 mm, truncate to broadly acute; blades 1.5-15 cm long, 2-11 mm wide, smooth, shiny green, apices acuminate. Panicles 0.5-8 (8.5) cm long, 0.8-2 cm wide, ovoid to subcylindrical, not lobed; branches not evident, spikelets borne singly, not clustered. Spikelets homogamous, with 3 florets, terminal floret bisexual; disarticulation above the glumes, beneath the sterile florets. Glumes 3.8-6 (8) mm long, 0.8-1.5 mm wide, keels smooth or scabridulous, narrowly to broadly winged distally, wings 0.1-0.5 mm wide, entire, smooth, lateral-veins prominent, usually smooth, sometimes scabridulous, apices acute or acuminate; sterile florets 2, equal to subequal, 1.5-2.5 mm, 1/2 or more the length of the bisexual florets, the basal 0.2-0.5 mm glabrous, the remainder hairy; bisexual florets 2.9-4.7 mm long, 0.9-1.8 mm wide, shiny, stramineous when immature, brown when mature, apices hairy, acuminate to beaked; anthers 1.5-2 mm. 2n = 14.

Distribution

Del., Fla., N.Mex., Tex., La., Tenn., N.C., S.C., Nev., Va., Colo., Calif., Ala., Ark., Ga., Ariz., Md., Kans., Okla., Ohio, Mo., Miss., Ky., Oreg.

Discussion

Phalaris caroliniana grows in wet, marshy, and swampy ground. It is a common species in suitable habitats through much of the southern portion of the Flora region and in northern Mexico. It has also been found in Puerto Rico, where it may be an introduction, and in Europe and Australia, where it is undoubtedly an introduction. It appears to hybridize with P. lemmonii and P. caroliniana (Baldini 1995).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"decumbent" is not a number.

... more about "Phalaris caroliniana"
membranous +  and scarious +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
Acuminate (?) +  and Beaked (?) +
Mary E. Barkworth +
Walter +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
straight +
basal +  and terminal +
keeled +  and rounded +
pseudopetiolate +  and branching +
intravaginal +, extravaginal +, branching +  and basal +
swelling +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
not evident +
cross +, linear +  and narrowly lanceolate +
2mm;11mm +
not evident +
spikelike +
hairy +  and glabrous +
Carolina canarygrass +
not branching +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (230 cm2,300 mm <br />2.3 m <br />) +
decumbent +  and erect +
swollen +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (150 cm1,500 mm <br />1.5 m <br />) +
not woody +
Del. +, Fla. +, N.Mex. +, Tex. +, La. +, Tenn. +, N.C. +, S.C. +, Nev. +, Va. +, Colo. +, Calif. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Ga. +, Ariz. +, Md. +, Kans. +, Okla. +, Ohio +, Mo. +, Miss. +, Ky. +  and Oreg. +
1/4 +  and 1/3 +
liquid +, soft +  and hard +
capillary +
pistillate +  and staminate +
hairy +  and glabrous +
acute +  and acuminate or beaked +
0.29 cm2.9 mm <br />0.0029 m <br /> (0.47 cm4.7 mm <br />0.0047 m <br />) +
sometimes longer +
1/2 +, 2 +  and 3 +
bisexual +  and sterile +
compressed +
subequal +
1.5mm +  and 2.5mm +
0.9mm +  and 1.8mm +
3.8mm +  and 6mm +
shorter or longer +
subtending +
subequal +
0.8mm +  and 1.5mm +
uncinate +
ovoid +  and cylindrical +
scabridulous +  and smooth +
distributed +
1-7(9)-veined +
0 +  and 3/4 +
lanceolate +  and linear +
truncate +  and broadly acute +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
inconspicuous +
lanceolate +
concealed +  and prominent +
2 +  and 1 +
well-developed +
2-keeled +
0.5cm +  and 8cm +
not lobed +, ovoid +  and subcylindrical +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
dry +  and fleshy +
pistillate +  and pedicellate +
single +, 10 +  and 200 +
compressed +
0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
simple +  and compound +
2 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
plumose +
Gramineae +
Phalaris caroliniana +
Phalaris +
species +
bisexual +  and sterile +
membranous +
parallel +  and converging +
hairy +  and glabrous +
aquatic +  and terrestrial +
0.1mm +  and 0.5mm +