Phleum pratense

L.
Common names: Timothy Fleole des pres Phleole des pres Mil
Introduced
Synonyms: Phleum pratense var. nodosum
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 24. Treatment on page 672.

Plants perennial; loosely to densely cespitose. Culms (20) 50-150 cm, usually erect, lower internodes frequently enlarged or bulbous. Sheaths of the flag leaves not inflated; auricles occasionally present, incon¬spicuous; ligules 2-4 mm, obtuse to acute; blades to 45 cm long, 4-8 (10) mm wide, flat. Panicles (3) 5-10 (16) cm long, 5-7.5 (10) mm wide, 5-20 times as long as wide, not tapering distally; branches adnate to the rachises. Glumes 3-4 mm, sides usually puberulent, keels pectinate-ciliate, apices awned, awns 1-1.5 (2) mm; lemmas (1.2) 1.7-2 mm, about 1/2 as long as the glumes, usually puberulent; anthers 1.6-2.3 mm. 2n = 42 (21, 35, 36, 49, 56, 63, 70, 84).

Distribution

Conn., N.J., N.Y., Wash., Del., D.C., Wis., Alta., B.C., Greenland, Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.S., N.W.T., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon, W.Va., Pacific Islands (Hawaii), Mass., Maine, N.H., R.I., Vt., Fla., Wyo., N.Mex., Tex., La., Tenn., N.C., S.C., Pa., Calif., Idaho, Mont., Va., Colo., Alaska, Ala., Kans., N.Dak., Nebr., Okla., S.Dak., Ark., Ill., Ga., Ind., Iowa, Ariz., Md., Ohio, Utah, Mo., Minn., Mich., Nev., Miss., Ky., Oreg.

Discussion

Phleum pratense grows in pastures, rangelands, and disturbed sites throughout most of the mesic, cooler regions of North America. Originally introduced from Eurasia as a pasture grass, it is now well established in many parts of the world, including the Flora region. North American plants belong to the polyploid Phleum pratense L. subsp. pratense, which differs from the diploid P. pratense subsp. bertolonii (DC.) Bornm. in having obtuse ligules. Depauperate specimens of P. pratense are hard to distinguish from P. alpinum.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"decumbent" is not a number.

... more about "Phleum pratense"
84] +, 70 +, 63 +, 56 +, 49 +, 36 +, 35 +, [21 +  and 42 +
membranous +  and scarious +
0.16 cm1.6 mm <br />0.0016 m <br /> (0.23 cm2.3 mm <br />0.0023 m <br />) +
Acute (?) +, Awnlike (?) +, Truncate (?) +  and Tapered (?) +
Mary E. Barkworth +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (?) +
straight +
basal +  and terminal +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
keeled +  and rounded +
pseudopetiolate +  and branching +
not connate +
intravaginal +, extravaginal +, branching +  and basal +
keeled +, cuneate +  and u--shaped +
swelling +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (45 cm450 mm <br />0.45 m <br />) +
not evident +
cross +, linear +  and narrowly lanceolate +
4mm;8mm +
spikelike +
Timothy +, Fleole des pres +, Phleole des pres +  and Mil +
not branching +
50 cm500 mm <br />0.5 m <br /> (150 cm1,500 mm <br />1.5 m <br />) +
not woody +
Conn. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, Wash. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Wis. +, Alta. +, B.C. +, Greenland +, Man. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. +, N.S. +, N.W.T. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Yukon +, W.Va. +, Pacific Islands (Hawaii) +, Mass. +, Maine +, N.H. +, R.I. +, Vt. +, Fla. +, Wyo. +, N.Mex. +, Tex. +, La. +, Tenn. +, N.C. +, S.C. +, Pa. +, Calif. +, Idaho +, Mont. +, Va. +, Colo. +, Alaska +, Ala. +, Kans. +, N.Dak. +, Nebr. +, Okla. +, S.Dak. +, Ark. +, Ill. +, Ga. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Ariz. +, Md. +, Ohio +, Utah +, Mo. +, Minn. +, Mich. +, Nev. +, Miss. +, Ky. +  and Oreg. +
1/6 +  and 1/4 +
liquid +, soft +  and hard +
capillary +
pistillate +  and staminate +
sometimes longer +
sterile +  and bisexual +
compressed +
reduced +
subtending +
unequal +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
uncinate +
not keeled +
0.17 cm1.7 mm <br />0.0017 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
obtuse +  and acute +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
membranous +
inconspicuous +
concealed +  and prominent +
2 +  and 1 +
well-developed +
2-keeled +
subequal +
5cm +  and 10cm +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.75 cm7.5 mm <br />0.0075 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (?) +
dry +  and fleshy +
not inflated +
puberulent +
Introduced +
1 +  and 60 +
compressed +
0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
simple +  and compound +
2 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
Phleum pratense var. nodosum +
Phleum pratense +
species +
membranous +
parallel +  and converging +
stoloniferous +  and rhizomatous +
plant +  and cespitose +
aquatic +  and terrestrial +