Polypodium virginianum

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 1085. 1753.

Common names: Rock polypody tripes-de-roches polypode de virginie
Endemic
Synonyms: Polypodium vinlandicum A. Löve & D. Löve Polypodium vulgare var. americanum Hooker Polypodium vulgare var. virginianum (Linnaeus) D. C. Eaton
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 2.

Stems often whitish pruinose, slender, to 6 mm diam., acrid-tasting; scales weakly bicolored, lanceolate, contorted distally, base and margins light-brown, sometimes with dark central stripe, margins denticulate. Leaves to 40 cm. Petiole slender, to 2 mm diam. Blade oblong to narrowly lanceolate, pinnatifid, usually widest near middle, occasionally at or near base, to 7 cm wide, somewhat leathery; rachis sparsely scaly to glabrescent abaxially, glabrous adaxially; scales lanceolate-ovate, usually more than 6 cells wide. Segments oblong, less than 8 mm wide; margins entire to crenulate; apex rounded to broadly acute; midrib glabrous adaxially. Venation free. Sori midway between margin and midrib to nearly marginal, less than 3 mm diam., circular when immature. Sporangiasters present, usually less than 40 per sorus, heads covered with glandular-hairs. Spores more than 52 µm, tuberculate, surface projections more than 3 µm tall. 2n = 148.


Phenology: Sporulating summer–fall.
Habitat: Cliffs and rocky slopes, on a variety of substrates
Elevation: 0–1800 m

Distribution

V2 572-distribution-map.gif

St. Pierre and Miquelon, Alta., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.W.T., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.

Discussion

Traditionally, two cytotypes have been recognized within Polypodium virginianum (I. Manton and M. Shivas 1953). Recent research has demonstrated that the tetraploid cytotype, which properly bears the name P. virginianum (R. Cranfill and D. M. Britton 1983), is an allopolyploid produced by hybridization between the diploid cytotype (here called P. appalachianum) and P. sibiricum (C. H. Haufler and M. D. Windham 1991; C. H. Haufler and Wang Z. R. 1991). Although sometimes similar to its diploid parents in overall leaf morphology, P. virginianum has consistently larger spores, typically more than 52 µm (see additional comments under P. appalachianum and P. sibiricum). Frequent hybridizations between P. virginianum and P. appalachianum form morphologically intermediate, triploid individuals with misshapen spores. Sterile triploids also result from hybridization between P. virginianum and P. sibiricum.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Polypodium virginianum"
Christopher H. Haufler +, Michael D. Windham +, Frank A. Lang +  and S. A. Whitmore +
Linnaeus +
light-brown +
0cm;7cm +
scaly +  and not glaucous +
pinnatifid +, oblong +  and narrowly lanceolate +
Rock polypody +, tripes-de-roches +  and polypode de virginie +
St. Pierre and Miquelon +, Alta. +, Man. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, N.W.T. +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Ky. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mo. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, S.Dak. +, Tenn. +, Vt. +, Va. +, W.Va. +  and Wis. +
0–1800 m +
elliptic +  and cordate +
Cliffs and rocky slopes, on a variety of substrates +
monomorphic +
closely spaced;distant +
narrowed +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (90 cm900 mm <br />0.9 m <br />) +
light-brown +
entire +  and crenulate +
winged +, grooved +  and articulate +
straw-colored +
terete +  and flattened +
Sporulating summer–fall. +
not adaxially +  and grooved +
glabrous;sparsely scaly;glabrescent abaxially +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
clathrate;not peltate;not clathrate;strongly clathrate +
lanceolate-ovate +  and lanceolate +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
discrete +
circular +  and oval +
of modified sporangia +
yellowish +  and transparent +
pruinose +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
few;numerous +
slender +
acrid-tasting +
verrucose +  and tuberculate +
Polypodium vinlandicum +, Polypodium vulgare var. americanum +  and Polypodium vulgare var. virginianum +
Polypodium virginianum +
Polypodium +
species +
anastomosing +
epiphytic +  and terrestrial +
pendent +, arching +  and erect +