Schwalbea americana

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 606. 1753.

IllustratedEndemicConservation concern
Synonyms: Schwalbea americana var. australis (Pennell) Reveal & C. R. Broome S. australis Pennell
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 17. Treatment on page 459. Mentioned on page 451.

Perennials blackening upon drying. Stems simple or branched from near base, 3–8 dm. Leaves: blade lanceolate to narrowly elliptic, 20–50 × 6–10 mm, gradually smaller distally, 3-nerved, surfaces densely pubescent. Pedicels ascending, 1–5 mm; bracteoles 2, linear, 6–12 mm, arising just proximal to calyx. Flowers: sepals 15–22 mm; calyx prominently 10–12-ribbed, oblique, glandular-pubescent, lobes unequal; petals suffused with purple in distal 1/2 and on veins, 22–35 mm; stamens included in adaxial lip; style included, 2–3 mm, glabrous. Capsules brown, ellipsoid to ovoid, 10–12 mm, glabrous. Seeds 2–2.5 mm, wings membranous. 2n = 36.


Phenology: Flowering Apr–Aug.
Habitat: Savannas, flatwoods, ecotones of depression ponds and streamheads, moist glacial outwash plains, pine-oak woodlands, longleaf pine, other pines northward and inland.
Elevation: 0–400 m.

Distribution

Ala., Conn., Del., Fla., Ga., Ky., La., Md., Mass., Miss., N.J., N.Y., N.C., S.C., Tenn., Va.

Discussion

Schwalbea americana is among the more fire-dependent species in the flora, responding favorably to annual burns. Documented host plants include Aletris farinosa, Carphephorus odoratissimus, Gaylussacia dumosa, Ilex glabra, and Pityopsis graminifolia. It has declined greatly since the advent of widespread fire suppression and is now federally listed as endangered; extant populations occur in Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, New Jersey, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Chaffseed was reported from eastern Texas by D. S. Correll and M. C. Johnston (1970); no voucher has been seen.

Schwalbea americana is in the Center for Plant Conservation’s National Collection of Endangered Plants.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"dm" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Schwalbea americana"
long-triangular +
short-triangular +
Bruce A. Sorrie +
Linnaeus +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
lanceolate;narrowly elliptic +
smaller +
not leathery +  and not fleshy +
6mm;10mm +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
glandular-pubescent +
tubular +
loculicidal +  and septicidal +
ellipsoid;ovoid +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
semiwoody +
suffused with purple +  and pale-yellow +
Ala. +, Conn. +, Del. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Ky. +, La. +, Md. +, Mass. +, Miss. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +  and Va. +
0–400 m. +
2 +  and 1 +
indehiscent +, septicidal +, loculicidal +  and dehiscence +
Savannas, flatwoods, ecotones of depression ponds and streamheads, moist glacial outwash plains, pine-oak woodlands, longleaf pine, other pines northward and inland. +
axillary +  and terminal +
deciduous +
unequal +
lobed +, toothed +  and entire +
tenuinucellate +  and unitegmic +
campylotropous-like +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
Flowering Apr–Aug. +
flattened +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br />) +
Illustrated +, Endemic +  and Conservation concern +
subequal +
branched +  and simple +
aerial +  and subterranean +
not fleshy +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
Schwalbea americana var. australis +  and S. australis +
Schwalbea americana +
Schwalbea +
species +
membranous +