Sclerocactus spinosior

(Engelmann) D. Woodruff & L. D. Benson

Cact. Succ. J. (Los Angeles) 48: 131. 1976.

Common names: Engelmann fishhook cactus desert valley fishhook cactus spini er devil’s-claw cactus
Endemic
Basionyms: Echinocactus whipplei var. spinosior Engelmann Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 2: 199. 1863
Synonyms: Ferocactus spinosior (Engelmann) N. P. Taylor Pediocactus spinosior (Engelmann) Halda Sclerocactus pubispinus var. spinosior (Engelmann) S. L. Welsh
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 4. Treatment on page 204. Mentioned on page 198, 205.

Stems usually unbranched, light green to dark green, ovoid or cylindric, 2–15 (–23) × 1–10 (–15) cm, glaucous; ribs (11–) 13–14, tubercles prominent on ribs. Spines frequently obscuring stems; radial spines 6–10 (–12) per areole, spreading, tipped white or dark, 10–35 × 0.3–1 mm; central spines (2–) 4–6 per areole; abaxial centrals (1–) 3 per areole, reddish to black, less often tan to brown, usually 1–2 hooked, except some older areoles, 20–40 mm; lateral central spines usually 2 per areole, tan, red, or reddish-brown, terete, 10–30 mm; adaxial central spines 1 (–3) white, flattened, 20–60 × 0.7–1.6 mm. Flowers narrowly funnelform to campanulate, 2–5 × 1–4 cm; outer tepals with greenish brown or reddish-brown midstripes and pink, violet-pink, or reddish purple margins, usually oblanceolate, 10–20 × 4–7 mm, usually mucronate, margins nearly entire; inner tepals reddish purple to lavender, oblanceolate to narrowly oblanceolate, 15–25 × 6–8 mm, margins paler, nearly entire; filaments yellow, green, red-violet, or pink; anthers yellow; styles minutely and sparsely papillate. Fruits dehiscent along 2–4 vertical slits, green to pink or pale-red, barrel-shaped, 9–13 × 8–12 mm, dry; scales few, membranous, scarious-margined. Seeds black, 2–2.5 × 2.5–3 mm; testa with rounded papillae.


Phenology: Flowering late Apr–May.
Habitat: Igneous or calcareous gravels, sagebrush and shadscale flats, pinyon-juniper woodlands
Elevation: 1500-2000 m

Discussion

Sclerocactus spinosior is morphologically similar to S. pubispinus and S. blainei (see discussions of those species). There is a variety of taxonomic opinions for handling species boundaries of S. spinosior. F. Hochstätter (1997) treated S. blainei at the subspecific level under S. spinosior; whereas S. L. Welsh (1984b) included S. spinosior as a variety of S. pubispinus. Phylogenetic analyses of chloroplast DNA sequences (J. M. Porter et al. 2000) provided evidence of close relationship among S. spinosior, S. pubispinus, and S. blainei, but no specific sister-group relationship for S. spinosior. Here we maintain all three at the rank of species.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

... more about "Sclerocactus spinosior"
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br /> (0.16 cm1.6 mm <br />0.0016 m <br />) +
cushionlike +
spine-bearing +
circular to linear +
deciduous +  and persistent +
connected +
elliptic +  and pyriform +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
Kenneth D. Heil +  and J. Mark Porter +
(Engelmann) D. Woodruff & L. D. Benson +
hardened +
Echinocactus whipplei var. spinosior +
triangular +
pink +  and purplish-pink or black +
subulate +  and acicular +
proliferating +
flattened +  and cylindric +
Engelmann fishhook cactus +, desert valley fishhook cactus +  and spini er devil’s-claw cactus +
mucilaginous +
notched +
1500-2000 m +
not separating +
pink +, red-violet +, green +  and yellow +
6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
2.1 cm21 mm <br />0.021 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
green;pink or pale-red +
persistent +, long +  and deciduous +
9mm;13mm +
barrel--shaped +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
Igneous or calcareous gravels, sagebrush and shadscale flats, pinyon-juniper woodlands +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
oblanceolate +  and narrowly oblanceolate +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
deciduous +  and persistent +
rudimentary +
flat +  and terete +
nearly +  and microscopic +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
tuberculate +
fluted;spheric;depressed-spheric or club-shaped +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
fimbriate +  and entire +
reddish-brown +  and greenish brown +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
deciduous +  and persistent +
Flowering late Apr–May. +
mucilaginous +
abscission +
ridgelike +  and nipple--shaped +
Cact. Succ. J. (Los Angeles) +
greenish +  and white +
tuberculate +
scarious-margined +
triangular +
membranous +
thin +  and broad +
arillate +  and strophiolate +
0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
shiny +  and glossy +
obovoid;pyriform;obovoid;pyriform;lenticular-reniform;comma--shaped;spheric +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
dark +  and tipped white +
curved +  and straight +
deciduous +  and persistent +
10mm +  and 35mm +
6 (?) +  and 10 (?) +
annulate-ridged +, hairlike +, daggerlike +, subulate +  and acicular +
hard +  and rigid +
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
decurrent +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
light green +  and dark green +
2cm;15cm +
cylindric +  and ovoid +
succulent +
1cm;10cm +
creamy white +, yellow +, green +  and pink +
papillate +
flat-topped +
tuberculate +
Ferocactus spinosior +, Pediocactus spinosior +  and Sclerocactus pubispinus var. spinosior +
adventitious +
tuberlike +
epipetric +  and epiphytic +
Sclerocactus spinosior +
Sclerocactus +
species +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
lanceolate to oblanceolate +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
dull +  and glossy +
papillate +
coalescent +
distinct +
epiphytic;epiphytic;epiphytic +
barrel-shaped +  and spheric +