Sclerocactus whipplei

(Engelmann & J. M. Bigelow) Britton & Rose

Cact. 3: 213. 1922.

Common names: Whipple fishhook cactus
Endemic
Basionyms: Echinocactus whipplei Engelmann & J. M. Bigelow Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 3: 271. 1856
Synonyms: Ferocactus whipplei (Engelmann & J. M. Bigelow) N. P. Taylor Pediocactus whipplei (Engelmann & J. M. Bigelow) Arp Sclerocactus whipplei var. pygmaeus Peebles
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 4. Treatment on page 199. Mentioned on page 201, 203.

Stem usually unbranched, depressed-spheric, or spheric to elongate-cylindric, 3–7 (–14) × 4–9 (–11) cm; ribs 13–15, tubercles usually evident on ribs. Spines densely covering stem; radial spines (5–) 7–12 per areole, white except for abaxial 2 that usually purplish-pink, 0.6–27 mm; central spines 4 (–5) per areole, terete to angled; abaxial central spine 1 per areole, purplish-pink or reddish-brown, somewhat angled, hooked, 16–45 (–55) × 0.5–1 mm; lateral central spines 2 per areole, directed toward stem apex, purplish-pink to white, 14–45 × 0.5–1 mm; adaxial central spine white, usually flat, ribbonlike or dagger-shaped, 17–65 (–70) × 1.5–2 (–3) mm. Flowers funnelform to campanulate, (1.5–) 2.2–3.2 × 1.5–3.5 cm; outer tepals with greenish or reddish midstripes and yellow margins, oblanceolate, to 24 × 5 mm; inner tepals yellow, oblanceolate, to 30 × 6 mm; filaments yellow; anthers yellow; ovary minutely papillate, appearing smooth. Fruits irregularly dehiscent, green to tan, often reddish at maturity, ovoid, 10–25 × 6–15 mm, dry; scales few, scarious-margined, minutely toothed, membranous-fringed. Seeds black, 2 × 2 mm, shiny; testa with rounded papillae.


Phenology: Flowering late Apr–May.
Habitat: Gravelly or sandy hills, canyon rims and mesas, desert grasslands, sagebrush or saltbush flats, or pinyon-juniper woodlands
Elevation: 1500-1800 m

Discussion

Sclerocactus whipplei, is one of the more distinctive species, characterized by yellow flowers and the flattened, somewhat daggerlike, adaxial central spine directed toward the stem apex. Similar species are S. sileri, of northeast Coconino County, Arizona, and the yellow-flowered populations of S. parviflorus, often referred to as subspecies terrae-canyonae (K. D. Heil) K. D. Heil & J. M. Porter. However, S. sileri lacks the daggerlike adaxial central spines, has fruits that dehisce by vertical slits and flowers that are usually a more pale yellow to nearly white, often suffused with brown. Sclerocactus parviflorus similarly lacks the daggerlike adaxial central spines and possesses larger stems and flowers.

Chloroplast DNA sequence data (J. M. Porter et al. 2000) support close relationships among Sclerocactus whipplei, S. parviflorus, and S. cloverae. Both S. whipplei and S. parviflorus possess identical DNA profiles for the gene studied.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

... more about "Sclerocactus whipplei"
4.5 cm45 mm <br />0.045 m <br /> (5.5 cm55 mm <br />0.055 m <br />) +
reddish-brown +  and purplish-pink +
1.6 cm16 mm <br />0.016 m <br /> (4.5 cm45 mm <br />0.045 m <br />) +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br /> (2.7 cm27 mm <br />0.027 m <br />) +
6.5 cm65 mm <br />0.065 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br /> (6.5 cm65 mm <br />0.065 m <br />) +
dagger--shaped +, ribbonlike +  and flat +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
cushionlike +
spine-bearing +
circular to linear +
deciduous +  and persistent +
connected +
elliptic +  and pyriform +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
Kenneth D. Heil +  and J. Mark Porter +
(Engelmann & J. M. Bigelow) Britton & Rose +
hardened +
Echinocactus whipplei +
triangular +
pink +  and purplish-pink or black +
terete +  and angled +
proliferating +
flattened +  and cylindric +
Whipple fishhook cactus +
mucilaginous +
notched +
Ariz. +  and Utah. +
1500-1800 m +
not separating +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br />) +
6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br /> (3.2 cm32 mm <br />0.032 m <br />) +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
1.5cm;3.5cm +
2.1 cm21 mm <br />0.021 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
reddish;green;tan +
persistent +, long +  and deciduous +
10mm;25mm +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
Gravelly or sandy hills, canyon rims and mesas, desert grasslands, sagebrush or saltbush flats, or pinyon-juniper woodlands +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
oblanceolate +
1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br /> (4.5 cm45 mm <br />0.045 m <br />) +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
deciduous +  and persistent +
rudimentary +
flat +  and terete +
nearly +  and microscopic +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
tuberculate +
fluted;spheric;depressed-spheric or club-shaped +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
fimbriate +  and entire +
reddish +  and greenish +
Purple (?) +, Pink (?) +, Rose (?) +, Gold (?) +, Cream (?) +  and White (?) +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (2.4 cm24 mm <br />0.024 m <br />) +
papillate +
deciduous +  and persistent +
Flowering late Apr–May. +
mucilaginous +
abscission +
ridgelike +  and nipple--shaped +
greenish +  and white +
tuberculate +
scarious-margined +
membranous-fringed +  and toothed +
thin +  and broad +
arillate +  and strophiolate +
0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (?) +
obovoid;pyriform;obovoid;pyriform;lenticular-reniform;comma--shaped;spheric +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (?) +
curved +  and straight +
deciduous +  and persistent +
7 (?) +  and 12 (?) +
annulate-ridged +, hairlike +, daggerlike +, subulate +  and acicular +
hard +  and rigid +
decurrent +
9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br /> (11 cm110 mm <br />0.11 m <br />) +
pale +  and dark green or bluish green +
3cm;7cm +
spheric +  and elongate-cylindric +
succulent +
4cm;9cm +
creamy white +, yellow +, green +  and pink +
flat-topped +
tuberculate +
Ferocactus whipplei +, Pediocactus whipplei +  and Sclerocactus whipplei var. pygmaeus +
adventitious +
tuberlike +
epipetric +  and epiphytic +
Sclerocactus whipplei +
Sclerocactus +
species +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
lanceolate to oblanceolate +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
dull +  and glossy +
papillate +
coalescent +
distinct +
epiphytic;epiphytic;epiphytic +
barrel-shaped +  and spheric +