Selaginella apoda

(Linnaeus) C. Morren

in Martius et al.,Fl. Bras. 1(2): 119. 1840.

Common names: Meadow spike-moss sélaginelle apode
Illustrated
Basionyms: Lycopodium apodum Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 2: 1105. 1753
Synonyms: Diplostachyum apodum (Linnaeus) Palisot de Beauvois
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 2.

Plants terrestrial, forming loose or clustered mats. Stems prostrate to short-creeping, sparsely branched, branches mostly simple or 1-forked, flat, not articulate, glabrous. Rhizophores axillary, throughout stem length or restricted to proximal 1/3 of stem, 0.05–0.1 mm diam. Leaves delicate, papery. Lateral leaves distant, green, ovate to ovatelanceolate, 1.35–2.25 × 0.75–1.35 mm; base slightly cordate; margins green or with 1 row of transparent cells, serrate; apex acute, ending in teeth. Median leaves ovatelanceolate, 1–1.6 × 0.45–0.7 mm; base oblique on inner side, rounded and prominent on outer side; margins green or with row of transparent cells, serrate; apex straight, acuminate to long-acuminate. Strobili paired or solitary, lax, flattened, 1–2 cm; sporophylls ovate to ovate-deltate, strongly keeled, keel dentate, base slightly cordate to rounded, margins with scattered teeth, apex acuminate; megasporophylls larger and wider than microsporophylls, usually on underside of strobili.


Habitat: Swamps, meadows, marshes, pastures, damp lawns, open woods, and stream banks, in basic to acidic soil
Elevation: 0–100 m

Distribution

V2 590-distribution-map.gif

Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Miss., Mo., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va., Mexico in Chihuahua, s to Chiapas

Discussion

Selaginella apoda is the central component of a taxonomically difficult species complex of eastern North America. It is closely related to S. eclipes (see discussion) and S. ludoviciana. Naturally occurring and experimental hybrids between S. apoda and S. ludoviciana have been reported (P. Somers and W. R. Buck 1975; T. R. Webster 1990). Also, some evidence indicates that hybrids may occur between S. apoda and S. eclipes. More studies are needed in this complex.

The species in the S. apoda complex may be best classified under subg. Homostachys of J. G. Baker (1883, 1887), with which they share flattened strobili and larger sporophylls (megasporophylls) that are usually in the same plane as the vegetative lateral leaves. They are, however, treated here with the other heterophyllous species of subg. Stachygynandrum until a reassessment of the classification of the genus Selaginella can be made.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

... more about "Selaginella apoda"
straight +
Iván A. Valdespino +
(Linnaeus) C. Morren +
slightly cordate +  and rounded +
Lycopodium apodum +
not articulate +  and simple +
1-forked +
transparent +
Meadow spike-moss +  and sélaginelle apode +
Ala. +, Ark. +, Conn. +, Del. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Ky. +, La. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Vt. +, Va. +, W.Va. +, Mexico in Chihuahua +  and s to Chiapas +
0–100 m +
Swamps, meadows, marshes, pastures, damp lawns, open woods, and stream banks, in basic to acidic soil +
0.135 cm1.35 mm <br />0.00135 m <br /> (0.225 cm2.25 mm <br />0.00225 m <br />) +
ovate;ovatelanceolate +
0.75mm;1.35mm +
ciliate +  and dentate +
arranged +  and overlapping +
oblong;lanceolate +
with row +, green +  and with 1 row +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.16 cm1.6 mm <br />0.0016 m <br />) +
ovatelanceolate +
0.045 cm0.45 mm <br />4.5e-4 m <br /> (0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br />) +
globose +, ovoid +  and tetrahedral +
larger and wider +
tetrahedral +
in Martius et al.,Fl. Bras. +
alternating +
size +  and shape +
linear-lanceolate;ovate +
0.005 cm0.05 mm <br />5.0e-5 m <br /> (0.01 cm0.1 mm <br />1.0e-4 m <br />) +
Illustrated +
adjacently +  and monomorphic +
vinelike +, climbing +  and cespitose +
prostrate;short-creeping +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
Diplostachyum apodum +
Selaginella apoda +
Selaginella subg. Stachygynandrum +
species +
articulate +  and branched +
not +, articulate +  and branched +
perennial +  and annual +
epiphytic +  and hemiepiphytic +
12 +, 11 +, 10 +, 9 +, 8 +  and 7 +