Solidago canadensis

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 878. 1753.

Common names: Canada goldenrod verge d’or du Canada
IllustratedEndemic
Synonyms: Aster canadensis (Linnaeus) Kuntze
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 20. Treatment on page 151. Mentioned on page 146, 150, 153, 156, 157.

Plants 30–150 (–200) cm; rhizomes short to long creeping. Stems 1–20+, erect, glabrate proximally or sparsely strigoso-villous, becoming more densely so distal to mid-stem. Leaves: basal 0; proximal to mid cauline usually withering by flowering, tapering to sessile bases, blades narrowly ovatelanceolate, 50–190 × 5–30 mm, margins sharply serrate, 3-nerved, apices acuminate, abaxial faces glabrous or more commonly hairy along main nerves, adaxial glabrous or slightly scabrous; mid to distal similar, 30–50 (–120) × 8–12 mm, largest near mid-stem, reduced distally, margins usually serrate or serrulate (teeth 3–8), sometimes entire proximal to arrays. Heads (70–) 150–1300+, secund, in secund pyramidal-paniculiform arrays (obscurely so and club-shaped thyrsiform in small plants or shoots with small arrays), branches divergent and recurved, branches and peduncles hairy. Peduncles 3–3.4 mm, bracteoles 0–3, linear-triangular. Involucres narrowly campanulate, 1.7–2.5 (–3) mm. Phyllaries in 3–4 series, strongly unequal, acute to obtuse; outer lanceolate, inner linear-lanceolate. Ray-florets (5–) 8–14 (–18); laminae 0.5–1.5 × 0.15–0.3 (–0.5) mm. Disc-florets (2–) 3–6 (–8); corollas 2.2–2.8 (–3) mm, lobes 0.4–0.8 (–1) mm. Cypselae (narrowly obconic) 1–1.5 mm (ribbed), sparsely strigose; pappi 1.8–2.2 mm.

Distribution

V20-325-distribution-map.gif

Introduced; Man., N.S., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), Ont., P.E.I., Que., Conn., Del., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Ky., Maine, Mass., Md., Mich., Minn., N.Dak., N.H., N.J., N.Y., Nebr., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.Dak., Va., Vt., W.Va., Wis., Europe

Discussion

Varieties 2 (2 in the flora).

Solidago canadensis is cultivated and introduced in more western states and in Europe. Very narrow limits for the species are followed here. Alternatively, the species has been defined broadly to include most other species of the subsection (e.g., A. Cronquist 1994).

Solidago ×bartramiana Fernald [S. canadensis var. bartramiana (Fernald) Beaudry] is considered to be a hybrid between S. canadensis and S. uliginosa. Its growth form and array are more like those of the latter.

Two sometimes difficult-to-distinguish varieties with greatly overlapping ranges are recognized.

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Mid to proximal stems glabrous or sparsely hairy Solidago canadensis var. canadensis
1 Mid to proximal stems moderately hairy Solidago canadensis var. hargeri
... more about "Solidago canadensis"
not tailed +, rounded +  and obtuse +
3-nerved +  and sessile +
distinct +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (19 cm190 mm <br />0.19 m <br />) +
subequal +
scarious +
5mm +  and 30mm +
usually triangular +  and linear +
usually deltate +  and lanceolate +
pyramidal-paniculiform +  and secund +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
cone--shaped +
John C. Semple +  and Rachel E. Cook +
Linnaeus +
3-nerved +  and sessile +
not persisting +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (19 cm190 mm <br />0.19 m <br />) +
acuminate +, ovatelanceolate +  and tapering +
5mm;30mm +
Triplinerviae +
3-nerved +  and sessile +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (19 cm190 mm <br />0.19 m <br />) +
acuminate;ovatelanceolate;tapering +
5mm;30mm +
rugulose +  and muricate +
linear-triangular +
secund +, leafy +  and thyrsiform-paniculiform +
cone--shaped +
Canada goldenrod +  and verge d’or du Canada +
not 2-lipped +  and actinomorphic +
0.28 cm2.8 mm <br />0.0028 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
yellow +  and white +
ampliate +
0.22 cm2.2 mm <br />0.0022 m <br /> (0.28 cm2.8 mm <br />0.0028 m <br />) +
beaked +, 2-ribbed +  and 5-ribbed +
compressed +, narrowly obconic +  and cylindric +
fertile +  and bisexual +
fertile +  and bisexual +
Man. +, N.S. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Conn. +, Del. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Ky. +, Maine +, Mass. +, Md. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, N.Dak. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, Nebr. +, Ohio +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.Dak. +, Va. +, Vt. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +  and Europe +
3-nerved +  and sessile +
resinous +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (19 cm190 mm <br />0.19 m <br />) +
acuminate;ovatelanceolate;tapering +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
indeterminate +
heterogamous +  and homogamous +
each +  and sessile +
linear-lanceolate +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
campanulate +
0.17 cm1.7 mm <br />0.0017 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
0.17 cm1.7 mm <br />0.0017 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
0.5mm;1.5mm +
0.15mm;0.3mm +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br />) +
30mm;50mm +
cauline +, proximal +  and mid +
largest +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
erect;spreading +
triangular +  and narrowly lanceolate +
scabrous +, glabrous +  and hairy +
scabrous +, glabrous +  and hairy +
3-nerved +  and sessile +
entire +, serrulate +  and serrate +
50mm;190mm +
acuminate +, ovatelanceolate +  and tapering +
5mm +  and 30mm +
linear-lanceolate +  and oblong or ovate +
unequal +  and rarely subequal +
2-carpellate +
persistent +
0.18 cm1.8 mm <br />0.0018 m <br /> (0.22 cm2.2 mm <br />0.0022 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.34 cm3.4 mm <br />0.0034 m <br />) +
not persisting +
stipitate-glandular +
acute +  and obtuse +
ovate-oblanceolate +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
strigillose +  and glabrous +
8 +  and 10 +
exalbuminous +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
1 +  and 20 +
appendaged +  and truncate +
papillate +  and smooth +
Aster canadensis +
Solidago canadensis +
Solidago subsect. Triplinerviae +
species +
not persisting +
100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br /> (200 cm2,000 mm <br />2 m <br />) +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br />) +