Solidago flexicaulis

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 879. 1753.

Common names: Zig-zag or broadleaved goldenrod verge d’or à tige zigzaguante
IllustratedEndemic
Synonyms: Doria flexicaulis (Linnaeus) Lunell Solidago flexicaulis var. ciliata de Candolle Solidago flexicaulis var. latifolia (Linnaeus) Pursh Solidago latifolia Solidago scrophulariifolia
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 20. Treatment on page 128. Mentioned on page 126, 127, 129.

Plants (15–) 25–75 (–90) cm; caudices woody, rhizomes short. Stems 1–5+, flexuous, sparsely to moderately hairy in arrays. Leaves: rosettes present at flowering; basal and proximal cauline tapering to winged petioles, blades ovate, (70–) 100–140 (–180) × (27–) 40–60 (–80) mm (petioles 1/4–1/2 total leaf length), margins serrate-serrulate [teeth (14–) 21–33 (–45)], abaxial faces glabrous or moderately hairy, more densely so on nerves, adaxial glabrous or sparsely hairy; mid to distal cauline sessile, blades narrowly ovate to lanceolate, 38–90 (–150) × 10–30 (–55) mm, reduced distally, becoming lanceolate in arrays, bases tapering, margins entire to serrate, apices acuminate to cuspidate, faces glabrous or sparsely hairy, abaxial glabrous or moderately hairy, more densely so along nerves. Heads 25–250, in short axillary and terminal racemiform clusters, lateral panicles (2–) 7–31 (–56) cm. Peduncles 0.5–5 mm, moderately to densely strigose; bracteoles 1–3, lanceolate, usually near base of involucres and grading into phyllaries. Involucres campanulate, 4.5–7 (–8) mm. Phyllaries in ca. 3 series, strongly unequal, outermost 1–2 mm, innermost 3.7–4.7 (–5.7) mm, linear-oblong, 1-nerved, apices obtuse to acute. Ray-florets 1–5; laminae (2–) 2.5–4 (–5) × 0.7–2 mm. Disc-florets 4–8 (–11); corollas 2–3 (–4) mm, lobes 1–1.6 (–2) mm. Cypselae (obconic) 1–2 (–3) mm, moderately to densely strigose; pappi 3–4.5 mm. 2n = 18, 36.


Phenology: Flowering Aug–Oct.
Habitat: Shaded woods and thickets
Elevation: 0–1200+ m

Distribution

V20-260-distribution-map.gif

N.B., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Pa., S.Dak., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.

Discussion

The two cytotypes of Solidago flexicaulis show a strong geographic pattern. Diploids mostly occur east of the Appalachians except in the southwestern portion of the range, while tetraploids occur west of the mountains (J. G. Chmielewski and J. C. Semple 1985). The report of 2n = 90 for the species (Semple et al. 1993) was based on a specimen of the recently described Solidago faucibus. The significance of ploidy level on cypselae traits was analyzed in detail by Chmielewski et al. (1989).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

... more about "Solidago flexicaulis"
hairy +  and glabrous +
hairy +  and glabrous +
hairy +  and glabrous +
not tailed +, rounded +  and obtuse +
distinct +
subequal +
scarious +
usually triangular +  and linear +
usually deltate +  and lanceolate +
secund +, corymbo-paniculiform +, paniculiform +  and racemiform +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
John C. Semple +  and Rachel E. Cook +
Linnaeus +
not persisting +
tapering +
Solidago sect. Glomeruliflorae +
compound +  and simple +
9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (5.5 cm55 mm <br />0.055 m <br />) +
3.8 cm38 mm <br />0.038 m <br /> (9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br />) +
lanceolate;narrowly ovate;lanceolate +
reduced +
10mm;30mm +
rugulose +  and muricate +
lanceolate +
Zig-zag or broadleaved goldenrod +  and verge d’or à tige zigzaguante +
not 2-lipped +  and actinomorphic +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
yellow +  and white +
ampliate +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
beaked +, 2-ribbed +  and 5-ribbed +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
compressed +, narrowly obconic +  and cylindric +
fertile +  and bisexual +
fertile +  and bisexual +
N.B. +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Conn. +, Del. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mo. +, Nebr. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, N.Dak. +, Ohio +, Pa. +, S.Dak. +, Tenn. +, Vt. +, Va. +, W.Va. +  and Wis. +
0–1200+ m +
resinous +
hairy +  and glabrous +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
Shaded woods and thickets +
indeterminate +
not nodding +
heterogamous +  and homogamous +
each +  and sessile +
0.47 cm4.7 mm <br />0.0047 m <br /> (0.57 cm5.7 mm <br />0.0057 m <br />) +
0.37 cm3.7 mm <br />0.0037 m <br /> (0.47 cm4.7 mm <br />0.0047 m <br />) +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
campanulate +
0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
0.17 cm1.7 mm <br />0.0017 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
2.5mm;4mm +
0.7mm;2mm +
31 cm310 mm <br />0.31 m <br /> (56 cm560 mm <br />0.56 m <br />) +
7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br /> (31 cm310 mm <br />0.31 m <br />) +
cauline +, proximal +  and basal +
tapering +
0.16 cm1.6 mm <br />0.0016 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
erect;spreading +
triangular +  and narrowly lanceolate +
linear-lanceolate +  and oblong or ovate +
unequal +  and rarely subequal +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
2-carpellate +
persistent +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
not persisting +
Flowering Aug–Oct. +
not stipitate-glandular +
ovate-oblanceolate +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
strigillose +  and glabrous +
8 +  and 10 +
exalbuminous +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
flexuous +
decumbent +  and ascending or erect +
1 +  and 5 +
appendaged +  and truncate +
papillate +  and smooth +
Doria flexicaulis +, Solidago flexicaulis var. ciliata +, Solidago flexicaulis var. latifolia +, Solidago latifolia +  and Solidago scrophulariifolia +
Solidago flexicaulis +
Solidago subsect. Glomeruliflorae +
species +
not persisting +
100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br /> (200 cm2,000 mm <br />2 m <br />) +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br />) +