Solidago gigantea

Aiton

Hort. Kew. 3: 211. 1789.

Common names: Tall or giant or smooth goldenrod verge d’or géante
Endemic
Basionym: Solidago serotina 1789
Synonyms: Aster latissimifolius var. serotinus Kuntze Doria dumetorum (Lunell) Lunell Doria pitcheri (Nuttall) Lunell Solidago cleliae de Candolle Solidago dumetorum Lunell Solidago gigantea var. leiophylla Fernald Solidago gigantea var. pitcheri (Nuttall) Shinners Solidago gigantea subsp. serotina (Kuntze) McNeill Solidago gigantea var. serotina (Kuntze) Cronquist Solidago gigantea var. shinnersii Beaudry Solidago pitcheri Solidago serotina var. gigantea (Aiton) A. Gray Solidago serotina var. minor Hooker Solidago serotinoides Solidago shinnersii Solidago somesii
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 20. Treatment on page 156. Mentioned on page 150, 157, 158, 166.

Plants 50–200 cm (solitary or clustered); rhizomes short to long-creeping. Stems 1–20+ or clustered, erect, glabrous or sparsely strigose in arrays, sometimes glaucous. Leaves: basal 0; proximal cauline usually withering by flowering time, sessile, lanceolate, 91–97 × 10–14 mm, margins sharply serrate, 3-nerved, apices acuminate, abaxial faces pilose on nerves or glabrous; mid to distal cauline similar, 57–76 × 0.7–1.2 cm, largest toward mid-stem, decreasing distally. Heads 40–600, secund, in broadly secund, pyramidal paniculiform arrays, rarely rhombic or club-shaped, proximal branches divergent, recurved, glabrous-glabrate or strigose, sometimes glaucous. Peduncles 1.5–3 mm, sparsely to densely strigillose; bracteoles 0–2, linear-lanceolate. Involucres campanulate, (2–) 2.5–4 (–5) mm. Phyllaries in 3–4 series, unequal, acute; outer lanceolate, inner linear-lanceolate (hexaploids from far west can have minute stipitate-glands, especially near base of outer phyllaries and peduncle bracts). Ray-florets (7–) 9–15 (–24) (conspicuous); laminae 1–3 × (0.1–) 0.2–0.4 mm. Disc-florets (4–) 7–12 (–17); corollas (2.5–) 3–3.5 (–4.5) mm, lobes 0.6–1 (–1.4) mm. Cypselae 1.3–1.5 mm, sparsely strigose; pappi 2–2.5 mm. 2n =18, 36, 54.


Phenology: Flowering Aug–Sep(–Oct).
Habitat: Usually at least seasonally moister soils, flood plains, ditches, depressions, open woods, and thickets, moist depressions in grasslands and parklands on Great Plains
Elevation: 0–1500+ m

Distribution

V20-339-distribution-map.gif

Alta., Man., N.B., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Ala., Ark., Colo., Conn., Del., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis., Wyo., in Mexico

Discussion

Solidago gigantea is usually the least hairy species of the S. canadensis complex. The stems may be somewhat glaucous and the array is usually somewhat more open than in S. canadensis and S. altissima, and less leafy than S. lepida. Its blooming season begins and ends earlier than S. altissima in eastern North America. The species is diploid, mostly east of the Appalachian Mountains, tetraploid throughout the eastern forest area, and hexaploid on the prairies. The broader-leaved hexaploids on the prairies have been treated as S. shinnersii; G. H. Morton (1984) indicated that the differences are not diagnostic. Reports of hexaploids in the mountains from Alberta, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, and northwestern Wyoming all have minute stipitate glands on the phyllaries, peduncle bracts, and sometimes the distalmost leaves; such plants belong in S. lepida, as do plants from British Columbia. Stems sometimes have 1–2 elongate insect galls near the base (S. Heard, pers. comm.). Although reported from much of Florida, specimens were seen only from Liberty County; all other collections are S. leavenworthii.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Solidago gigantea"
54 +, 36 +  and 18 +
glabrous +  and pilose +
not tailed +, rounded +  and obtuse +
distinct +
subequal +
scarious +
usually triangular +  and linear +
usually deltate +  and lanceolate +
secund +, leafy +  and thyrsiform-paniculiform +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
cone--shaped +
John C. Semple +  and Rachel E. Cook +
not persisting +
decurrent +
Solidago serotina +
compound +  and simple +
rugulose +  and muricate +
linear-lanceolate +
secund +, leafy +  and thyrsiform-paniculiform +
cone--shaped +
57 cm570 mm <br />0.57 m <br /> (76 cm760 mm <br />0.76 m <br />) +
0.7cm +  and 1.2cm +
Tall or giant or smooth goldenrod +  and verge d’or géante +
not 2-lipped +  and actinomorphic +
0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
yellow +  and white +
ampliate +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
beaked +, 2-ribbed +  and 5-ribbed +
compressed +, narrowly obconic +  and cylindric +
fertile +  and bisexual +
fertile +  and bisexual +
Alta. +, Man. +, N.B. +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Del. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, Mont. +, Nebr. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, N.Dak. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, S.Dak. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Vt. +, Va. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +, Wyo. +  and in Mexico +
0–1500+ m +
resinous +
stipitate-glandular +, puberulent +, pilose +, glabrous +, glabrous or +  and sparsely densely scabrous strigillose or villous +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
Usually at least seasonally moister soils, flood plains, ditches, depressions, open woods, and thickets, moist depressions in grasslands and parklands on Great Plains +
indeterminate +
heterogamous +  and homogamous +
club--shaped +  and rhombic +
each +  and sessile +
linear-lanceolate +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
campanulate +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
0.17 cm1.7 mm <br />0.0017 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
0.01 cm0.1 mm <br />1.0e-4 m <br /> (0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br />) +
0.2mm;0.4mm +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.14 cm1.4 mm <br />0.0014 m <br />) +
erect;spreading +
triangular +  and narrowly lanceolate +
linear-lanceolate +  and oblong or ovate +
unequal +  and rarely subequal +
2-carpellate +
persistent +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
not persisting +
Flowering Aug–Sep(–Oct). +
stipitate-glandular +
ovate-oblanceolate +
glaucous +, strigose +  and glabrous-glabrate +
9.1 cm91 mm <br />0.091 m <br /> (9.7 cm97 mm <br />0.097 m <br />) +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
strigillose +  and glabrous +
8 +  and 10 +
exalbuminous +
1 +  and 20 +
appendaged +  and truncate +
papillate +  and smooth +
Aster latissimifolius var. serotinus +, Doria dumetorum +, Doria pitcheri +, Solidago cleliae +, Solidago dumetorum +, Solidago gigantea var. leiophylla +, Solidago gigantea var. pitcheri +, Solidago gigantea subsp. serotina +, Solidago gigantea var. serotina +, Solidago gigantea var. shinnersii +, Solidago pitcheri +, Solidago serotina var. gigantea +, Solidago serotina var. minor +, Solidago serotinoides +, Solidago shinnersii +  and Solidago somesii +
Solidago gigantea +
Solidago subsect. Triplinerviae +
species +
not persisting +
100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br /> (200 cm2,000 mm <br />2 m <br />) +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br />) +