Solidago rigida subsp. rigida
Stems (robust) 60–150 cm, coarsely hispid (10–70 hairs/mm2) (hairs stiff). Leaves: basal large, to 250 × 100 mm; faces moderately to densely hispid (7–50 hairs/mm2); mid to distal ovate, thick. Heads usually in loose, open, spreading, flat-topped arrays, 3–20 (–34) × (4.5–) 6.5–18 (–27) cm. Peduncles densely hispido-strigose. Phyllaries: outer hairy; inner oblong to slightly spatulate, 0.8–1.4 mm wide, glabrate to puberulent. Disc corolla lobes deep, 1.1–1.6 mm. Cypselae glabrous. 2n = 18, 36.
Phenology: Flowering Aug–Oct.
Habitat: Prairies, glades, oak savannas, dry open areas especially on calcareous soils, disturbed grounds (railroads, etc.)
Elevation: 0–400+ m
Ont., Ark., Conn., Del., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., Md., Mass., Mich., Mo., Nebr., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Va., W.Va., Wis.
"thick" is not a number.