Solidago sempervirens

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 878. 1753.

Common names: Seaside goldenrod verge d’or toujours verte
Synonyms: Aster sempervirens (Linnaeus) Kuntze
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 20. Treatment on page 136. Mentioned on page 137, 138, 145.

Plants 40–200 cm; caudices short, stout. Stems 1–10 (–20+), erect or ascending, glabrous throughout or hairy in arrays. Leaves: rosettes present at flowering; basal and proximal cauline tapering to long, winged petioles sheathing stems or nearly so, blades narrowly ovate to oblanceolate, 100–400 × 10–60 mm, thick or fleshy, entire, acute, glabrous; mid to distal cauline usually numerous, sessile, blades lanceolate, 40–60 × 5–10 mm, reduced distally, thick or fleshy, bases sometimes subclasping, margins entire. Heads 20–500, secund, in paniculiform arrays, secund-pyramidal to broadly club-shaped, sometimes leafy proximally, at least proximal branches spreading-recurved, branches and peduncles bracteolate, bracteoles reduced distally. Peduncles 2–3 mm, glabrous or sparsely hairy. Involucres 3–7 mm. Phyllaries in 3–4 series, unequal, lanceolate, margins ciliate, apices acute. Ray-florets 8–17; laminae 5–6.2 × 0.4–0.6 mm. Disc-florets 10–22; corollas 3–3.2 mm, lobes 0.5–1.2 mm. Cypselae (obconic) 1.1–1.5 mm, moderately strigose; pappi 3.8–4 mm (slightly clavate).

Distribution

V20-286-distribution-map.gif

N.B., N.S., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), Ont., P.E.I., Que., Ala., Conn., Del., Fla., Ga., Ill., La., Maine, Mass., Md., Mich., Miss., N.C., N.H., N.J., N.Y., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.C., Tex., Va., Mexico, West Indies, Central America, inland around Great Lakes, to Atlantic Islands (Azores)

Discussion

Subspecies 2 (2 in the flora).

Solidago sempervirens is common along the seacoast from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to central America and the northern West Indies. Introduced populations are sometimes very large near the Detroit River and Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, eastern Michigan, and adjacent Ohio. A second disjunct group of populations occurs in Illinois and Indiana in the Chicago area at the southern end of Lake Michigan. Two mostly geographically separate subspecies can be recognized in the flora range. A race also occurs in the Azores and is undoubtedly introduced there [Solidago sempervirens var. azorica (Hochstetter ex Seubert) H. St. John]. Plants cultivated in European gardens have been labeled S. sempervirens var. viminea (Aiton) A. Gray.

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Involucres 4–7 mm, rays 12–17, disc florets ca. 17–22; Newfoundland to New Jersey, locally to Virginia Solidago sempervirens subsp. sempervirens
1 Involucres 3–4 mm, rays 7–11, disc florets ca. 10–16; Massachusetts to Texas and southward Solidago sempervirens subsp. mexicana
... more about "Solidago sempervirens"
not tailed +, rounded +  and obtuse +
distinct +
subequal +
scarious +
usually triangular +  and linear +
usually deltate +  and lanceolate +
paniculiform +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
John C. Semple +  and Rachel E. Cook +
Linnaeus +
subclasping +
not persisting +
decurrent +
Maritimae +
compound +  and simple +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
lanceolate;acute;narrowly ovate;oblanceolate +
reduced +
thick;5mm;10mm +
rugulose +  and muricate +
spreading-recurved +
Seaside goldenrod +  and verge d’or toujours verte +
not 2-lipped +  and actinomorphic +
yellow +  and white +
ampliate +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.32 cm3.2 mm <br />0.0032 m <br />) +
beaked +, 2-ribbed +  and 5-ribbed +
compressed +, narrowly obconic +  and cylindric +
fertile +  and bisexual +
fertile +  and bisexual +
N.B. +, N.S. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Ala. +, Conn. +, Del. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, La. +, Maine +, Mass. +, Md. +, Mich. +, Miss. +, N.C. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, Ohio +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, Tex. +, Va. +, Mexico +, West Indies +, Central America +, inland around Great Lakes +  and to Atlantic Islands (Azores) +
resinous +
stipitate-glandular +, puberulent +, pilose +, glabrous +, glabrous or +  and sparsely densely scabrous strigillose or villous +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
leafy +  and secund +
indeterminate +
heterogamous +  and homogamous +
secund-pyramidal +  and broadly club-shaped +
each +  and sessile +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
campanulate;cylindric +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
0.17 cm1.7 mm <br />0.0017 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
5mm;6.2mm +
0.4mm;0.6mm +
cauline +, proximal +  and basal +
tapering +
erect;spreading +
triangular +  and narrowly lanceolate +
linear-lanceolate +  and oblong or ovate +
unequal +  and rarely subequal +
2-carpellate +
persistent +
0.38 cm3.8 mm <br />0.0038 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
hairy +  and glabrous +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
not persisting +
stipitate-glandular +
lanceolate +
ovate-oblanceolate +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
strigillose +  and glabrous +
8 +  and 10 +
exalbuminous +
ascending +  and erect +
1 +  and 10 +
appendaged +  and truncate +
papillate +  and smooth +
Aster sempervirens +
Solidago sempervirens +
Solidago subsect. Maritimae +
species +
not persisting +
100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br /> (200 cm2,000 mm <br />2 m <br />) +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br />) +