Streptanthus tortuosus

Kellogg

Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 2: 152, plate 46. 1863.

IllustratedEndemic
Synonyms: Disaccanthus tortuosus (Kellogg) O. E. Schulz Erysimum tortuosum (Kellogg) Kuntze Pleiocardia foliosa (Greene) Greene Pleiocardia orbiculata (Greene) Greene Pleiocardia suffrutescens (Greene) Greene Pleiocardia tortuosa (Kellogg) Greene Streptanthus foliosus Greene Streptanthus orbiculatus Greene Streptanthus sanhedrensis Eastwood Streptanthus suffrutescens Greene Streptanthus tortuosus var. flavescens Jepson Streptanthus tortuosus var. oblongus Jepson Streptanthus tortuosus var. optatus Jepson Streptanthus tortuosus var. orbiculatus (Greene) H. M. Hall Streptanthus tortuosus var. pallidus Jepson Streptanthus tortuosus var. suffrutescens (Greene) Jepson
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 7. Treatment on page 722. Mentioned on page 702.

Biennials or perennials; (short-lived); (glaucous), glabrous throughout. Stems unbranched or branched (several) basally and distally, (0.5–) 1.5–12 (–15) dm. Basal leaves (soon withered); subrosulate; petiolate; blade broadly ovate, obovate or oblong, 1.5–6 cm, margins entire or repand, or dentate apically. Cauline leaves: blade oblong to obovate or suborbicular, or (distally) orbicular or oblong-ovate, (0.7–) 1.5–6 (–9) cm × (4–) 10–45 mm, base auriculate to amplexicaul (amplexicaul distally), margins entire or repand. Racemes bracteate below or between proximalmost 1 or 2 flowers, (lax to compact, secund or not). Fruiting pedicels divaricate to ascending, (2–) 3–12 (–17) mm, (expanded at receptacle). Flowers: calyx urceolate; sepals purplish, gray-green, or yellowish, 6–10 (–13) mm, keeled or not, (apex recurved); petals purplish or yellowish white (usually with purple veins), (6–) 8–14 mm, blade 2–5 × 1–2.5 mm, margins not crisped, claw 4–10 mm, as wide as or wider than blade, (apex reflexed); stamens in 3 unequal pairs; filaments (distinct): abaxial pair (2.5–) 4–7 mm, lateral pair (1.5–) 3–5 mm, adaxial pair (5–) 7–11 mm; anthers (all) fertile or adaxial pair with reduced fertility and shorter, (1.5–) 2.5–4.5 (–6) mm; gynophore 0.2–1 mm. Fruits arcuate-spreading to pendent, torulose or smooth, straight, flattened, (3–) 4–13 (–16) cm × 1.5–2.5 (–3) mm; valves each with obscure or somewhat prominent midvein; replum straight; ovules 26–76 (–110) per ovary; style 0.4–0.7 mm; stigma entire. Seeds broadly oblong to ovoid or orbicular, 1.5–2.5 × 0.8–1.7 mm; wing 0.1–0.5 mm wide, continuous or on distal 1/2.2n = 28.


Phenology: Flowering Apr–Sep.
Habitat: Rocky open slopes, open woodlands, montane forests, alpine areas
Elevation: 200-4100 m

Discussion

Streptanthus tortuosus is highly polymorphic, forming distinct local races. Variation in duration, stature, branching, development of the sepal keel, petal color, and bract size are not correlated with habitat or geography. Some authors (e.g., R. C. Rollins 1993; R. E. Buck et al. 1993) divided it into five varieties based on variations in those characters, but the variation is continuous and the purported differences do not hold. For example, those authors and N. H. Holmgren (2005b), recognized the highly branched, shorter plants of the alpine Sierra Nevada as var. orbiculatus, but intergradation downslope is completely clinal. The most distinctive variant (S. foliosus) is restricted to the central Sierra Nevada, where plants with large, brittle, subachlorophyllus bracts predominate. However, that condition reappears sporadically in the Klamath Ranges and elsewhere. Annual plants have never been documented in S. tortuosus, contrary to the claim by some authors (e.g., Rollins; Buck et al.; Holmgren); the alleged “annuals” produce rosettes that invariably overwinter before flowering. Without thorough molecular, experimental, and cytological study of this complex, it is impractical to recognize ill-defined varieties that represent only a minor fraction of the overall variation in the species.

R. C. Rollins (1993) placed Streptanthus foliosus in the synonymy of S. diversifolius, but its type clearly belongs to S. tortuosus.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"elongated" is not a number."thick" is not a number."dm" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Streptanthus tortuosus"
proximalmost +
2 +  and 1 +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
linear +  and oblong +
Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz +
Kellogg +
auriculate to amplexicaul +
appendaged +  and unappendaged +
6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br /> (9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
lyrate-pinnatifid +, dentate +  and entire +
dissected +, repand +, sinuate +, crenate +  and dentate +
oblong;obovate or suborbicular or orbicular or oblong-ovate +
much smaller +  and reduced +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
wider;wider;1mm;2.5mm +
urceolate +
branched +  and simple +
petiolate +  and sessile +
well-developed +
distinct +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
differentiated +
emarginate +  and entire +
Calif. +, Nev. +  and Oreg. +
200-4100 m +
straight +  and curved +
not winged +  and unappendaged +
connate +  and distinct +
zygomorphic +  and actinomorphic +
latiseptate +, stipitate +  and subsessile +
13 cm130 mm <br />0.13 m <br /> (16 cm160 mm <br />0.16 m <br />) +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
straight +
4cm;13cm +
arcuate-spreading +  and pendent +
flattened +  and torulose +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
Rocky open slopes, open woodlands, montane forests, alpine areas +
sessile +  and petiolate +
alternate +, not +  and rosulate +
cauline +  and basal +
connate +  and distinct +
decurrent +
not crisped;repand;entire;dentate;repand;entire;dentate;repand;entire +
prominent +  and obscure +
tenuinucellate +, crassinucellate +  and bitegmic +
campylotropous +  and anatropous +
unequal +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
rudimentary +
Oblong (?) +  and Ovate (?) +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br />) +
Flowering Apr–Sep. +
trinucleate +  and 3(-11)-colpate +
Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. +
1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br />) +
elongated +
stout +  and slender +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
mucilaginous +
aseriate +, uniseriate +  and biseriate +
not +  and mucilaginous +
White (?) +, Black (?) +, Brown (?) +  and Yellow (?) +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
broadly oblong +  and ovoid or orbicular +
0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (0.17 cm1.7 mm <br />0.0017 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br />) +
yellowish +, gray-green +  and purplish +
persistent +  and caducous +
distinct +
not +  and keeled +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
reduced +
latiseptate +, schizocarpic +, samaroid +  and lomentaceous +
indehiscent +  and dehiscent +
angustiseptate +, flat +, angled +, terete +, torulose +, not +, segmented +  and nutletlike +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
tetradynamous +
branched +  and unbranched +
procumbent +  and decumbent +
ascending +  and erect +
2-lobed +  and entire +
subsessile +, sessile +  and petiolate +
persistent +
distinct +
0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br /> (0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br />) +
Disaccanthus tortuosus +, Erysimum tortuosum +, Pleiocardia foliosa +, Pleiocardia orbiculata +, Pleiocardia suffrutescens +, Pleiocardia tortuosa +, Streptanthus foliosus +, Streptanthus orbiculatus +, Streptanthus sanhedrensis +, Streptanthus suffrutescens +, Streptanthus tortuosus var. flavescens +, Streptanthus tortuosus var. oblongus +, Streptanthus tortuosus var. optatus +, Streptanthus tortuosus var. orbiculatus +, Streptanthus tortuosus var. pallidus +  and Streptanthus tortuosus var. suffrutescens +
Streptanthus tortuosus +
Streptanthus +
species +
dendritic +  and simple +
coiled +, 1-7-veined +  and veined +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
anastomosing +
perennial +  and biennial +
perennial +, biennial +  and annual +
subshrub +  and shrub +
aquatics +  and terrestrial +
glabrous +  and pubescent +
on distal 1/2 +  and continuous +
0.1mm;0.5mm +