Symphyotrichum cordifolium

(Linnaeus) G. L. Nesom

Phytologia 77: 278. 1995.

Common names: Heartleaf or common blue wood aster aster cordifolié
IllustratedEndemic
Basionym: Aster cordifolius Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 2: 875. 1753
Synonyms: Aster cordifolius var. alvearius E. S. Burgess Aster cordifolius var. furbishiae Fernald Aster cordifolius var. incisus Britton Aster cordifolius subsp. laevigatus (Porter) A. G. Jones Aster cordifolius var. laevigatus Porter Aster cordifolius var. lanceolatus Porter Aster cordifolius var. moratus (Shinners) Shinners Aster cordifolius var. polycephalus Porter Aster cordifolius var. racemiflorus Fernald Aster cordifolius subsp. sagittifolius (Wedemeyer ex Willdenow) A. G. Jones Aster cordifolius var. sagittifolius (Wedemeyer ex Willdenow) A. G. Jones Aster finkii var. moratus Shinners Aster leiophyllus Aster lowrieanus Aster lowrieanus var. incisus (Britton) Porter Aster lowrieanus var. lanceolatus (Porter) Porter Aster sagittifolius Symphyotrichum cordifolium var. furbishiae (Fernald) G. L. Nesom Symphyotrichum cordifolium var. lanceolatum (Porter) G. L. Nesom Symphyotrichum cordifolium var. moratum (Shinners) G. L. Nesom Symphyotrichum cordifolium var. polycephalum (Porter) G. L. Nesom Symphyotrichum cordifolium var. racemiflorum (Fernald) G. L. Nesom Symphyotrichum lowrieanum Symphyotrichum sagittifolium
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 20. Treatment on page 501. Mentioned on page 374, 474, 500, 502, 507, 509, 5.

Perennials, 20–120 cm, colonial or cespitose; branched rhizomatous, or with branched caudices, becoming ± woody. Stems 1–5+, erect (straight to ± flexuous distally, often reddish, sometimes brown), usually glabrous, sometimes ± pilose, particularly distally. Leaves thin, margins serrate (often sharply, teeth acuminate, mucronulate) to serrate-crenate or subentire, strigose, apices acuminate to acute, mucronulate, abaxial faces glabrous or sparsely to densely strigose-pilose, often pilose on midveins, sometimes on other veins also, adaxial glabrous or sparsely to densely strigose, sometimes ± scabrous; basal withering by flowering, new vernal rosettes often present, long-petiolate (petioles ± narrowly winged, bases dilated, sheathing, ciliate), blades ovate to elliptic or suborbiculate, (10–) 35–150 × (10–) 25–75 mm, bases usually deeply cordate, sometimes rounded, margins coarsely, often irregularly serrate, apices sometimes obtuse or rounded; proximal cauline often withering by flowering, winged-petiolate (becoming shorter and more widely winged distally, petiole bases clasping), blades widely to narrowly ovate, 40–100 (–140) × 20–40 (–70) mm, reduced distally, bases ± deeply cordate to rounded, margins sharply serrate, apices acuminate; distal usually sessile or subsessile, rarely short-petiolate, blades ovate to lanceolate, 5–105 × 2–45 mm, bases cordate or rounded to attenuate or cuneate, margins serrate or entire (distalmost), apices acuminate. Heads [(5–) 20–300+] in ± densely paniculiform arrays, branches divaricate to ascending, paniculiform, sometimes ± long-arching, leafy. Peduncles 0.3–2 cm, ± pilose, bracts linear-oblanceolate or lanceolate to linear, foliaceous, distally grading into phyllaries, margins sparsely ciliolate, glabrous. Involucres cylindro-campanulate to cylindric, (3–) 4.5–5 (–6) mm. Phyllaries in (3–) 4–6 series, linear-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, unequal, bases indurate 1/2–3/4, margins scarious, erose, hyaline, sparsely ciliolate, green zones lanceolate to ± diamond-shaped, apical, apices (often red-tipped) acute to obtuse-acuminate or acuminate, mucronulate, faces glabrous or sparsely strigillose. Ray-florets (8–) 10–16 (–20); corollas usually blue to purple, seldom whitish or pink, laminae (5–) 6–8 (–10) × 1.4–1.8 mm. Disc-florets (8–) 10–15 (–20); corollas cream-color or light yellow becoming purple, (3–) 4–4.5 (–5) mm, tubes slightly shorter than funnelform throats, lobes sometimes ± spreading, narrowly triangular to lanceolate, 0.6–0.9 mm. Cypselae dull purple or light-brown, obovoid, ± compressed, 2–2.5 mm, 4–5-nerved, faces glabrous; pappi white or ± rose-tinged, 2.5–4.5 mm. 2n = 16, 32.


Phenology: Flowering Aug–Oct.
Habitat: Rich, mostly mesic, rocky to loamy soils, open wooded slopes and bluffs, stream banks, moist ledges, swampy woods, border of beech-maple or oak-hickory forets, clearings, thickets, roadsides, along ditches, sometimes weedy in urban areas
Elevation: 0–1200 m

Distribution

V20-1123-distribution-map.gif

Man., N.B., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Ala., Ark., Conn., D.C., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.

Discussion

Symphyotrichum cordifolium has been introduced in British Columbia but has not persisted. In a morphometric analysis of infraspecific variation in the northeastern part of the range, A. Legault (1986) showed that the varieties described are not distinct and mostly represent phenotypic variants caused by growing conditions; likewise, diploid and tetraploid races could not be distinguished morphologically.

The type of Aster cordifolius var. laevigatus is conspecific with that of Symphyotrichum cordifolium. This name is the basionym of S. lowrieanum; therefore the latter cannot be considered distinct from S. cordifolium and is not recognized here. Most specimens initially identified as S. lowrieanum in herbaria have been re-determined as S. cordifolium. Some of the specimens, however, appear to correspond to the hybrid between S. cordifolium and S. laeve var. laeve, called S. ×schistosum (Steele) G. L. Nesom (syn. Aster schistosus Steele).

Symphyotrichum ×tardiflorum (Linnaeus) Greuter, Aghababian & Wagenitz [syn. Aster tardiflorus Linnaeus, A. novi-belgii Linnaeus subsp. tardiflorus (Linnaeus) A. G. Jones, A. novi-belgii var. tardiflorus (Linnaeus) A. G. Jones, Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (Linnaeus) G. L. Nesom var. tardiflorum (Linnaeus) G. L. Nesom] is the F1 hybrid between S. cordifolium and S. puniceum (J. Labrecque & Brouillet 1996; G. L. Nesom 1997; W. Greuter et al. 2005). Aster tardiflorus forma vestitus (Fernald) Fernald or var. vestitus Fernald is a hairy variant of the hybrid and is not recognized here; hairiness may be related to whichever species is the maternal parent. A. G. Jones (1989) reported hybrids with S. drummondii and S. urophyllum. She believed that var. moratum may be a hybrid with or an introgressant from S. drummondii, but this is not accepted by all authors. Symphyotrichum ×finkii (Rydberg) G. L. Nesom (syn. Aster finkii Rydberg), may be the hybrid of S. cordifolium and S. shortii. All such putative hybrids need to be confirmed.

Lower Taxa

None.

"thin" is not a number.

pilose +, glabrous or +  and sparsely densely strigose-pilose +
glabrous or +  and sparsely densely strigose +
not tailed +, rounded +  and obtuse +
winged-petiolate +  and long-petiolate +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (14 cm140 mm <br />0.14 m <br />) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
distinct +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
flowering +  and new +
reduced +
scarious +
20mm +  and 40mm +
usually triangular +  and linear +
usually deltate +  and lanceolate +
spiciform +, racemiform +, paniculiform +  and corymbiform +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
Luc Brouillet +, John C. Semple +, Geraldine A. Allen +, Kenton L. Chambers +  and Scott D. Sundberg† +
(Linnaeus) G. L. Nesom +
winged-petiolate +  and long-petiolate +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (14 cm140 mm <br />0.14 m <br />) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
flowering +  and new +
rounded +  and attenuate or cuneate +
reduced +
indurate +
20mm;40mm +
Aster cordifolius +
winged-petiolate +  and long-petiolate +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (14 cm140 mm <br />0.14 m <br />) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (10.5 cm105 mm <br />0.105 m <br />) +
flowering +  and new +
ovate;lanceolate +
reduced +
2mm;45mm +
rugulose +  and muricate +
lanceolate +  and linear +
leafy +  and paniculiform +
long-arching;ascending +
barbellulate +  and barbellate +
branched +  and rhizomatous +
sessile +  and petiolate +
Heartleaf or common blue wood aster +  and aster cordifolié +
not 2-lipped +  and actinomorphic +
0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
light yellow becoming purple +, cream-color +, usually blue +  and purple seldom whitish or pink +
at maturity , more or less ampliate , tubes usually shorter +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
beaked +, 2-ribbed +  and 5-ribbed +
light-brown +, purple +  and dull +
strigillose +  and glabrous +
compressed +  and obovoid +
fertile +  and bisexual +
fertile +  and bisexual +
short-petiolate +, subsessile +  and sessile +
Man. +, N.B. +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Conn. +, D.C. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Ky. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mo. +, Nebr. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, S.Dak. +, Tenn. +, Vt. +, Va. +, W.Va. +  and Wis. +
0–1200 m +
glabrous +  and strigillose +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
Rich, mostly mesic, rocky to loamy soils, open wooded slopes and bluffs, stream banks, moist ledges, swampy woods, border of beech-maple or oak-hickory forets, clearings, thickets, roadsides, along ditches, sometimes weedy in urban areas +
disciform +  and radiate +
indeterminate +
heterogamous +  and homogamous +
each +  and sessile +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br />) +
cylindro-campanulate;cylindric +
0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
2 (?) +  and 5 (?) +
1.4mm;1.8mm +
sessile +  and petiolate +
cauline +  and basal +
decurrent +
narrowly triangular +  and lanceolate +
winged-petiolate +  and long-petiolate +
entire +  and serrate +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (14 cm140 mm <br />0.14 m <br />) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
40mm;100mm +
flowering +  and new +
ciliolate +, glabrous +  and strigose +
acuminate +, less deeply cordate +  and rounded +
reduced +
20mm +  and 40mm +
2-carpellate +
rose-tinged +  and white +
persistent +
25 +  and 40 +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
Flowering Aug–Oct. +
linear-lanceolate +  and oblong-lanceolate +
styliferous +, neuter +  and pistillate +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
flat;slightly convex +
legault1986a +
long-petiolate +
new +  and flowering +
rounded;obtuse;rounded;cordate;ovate;elliptic or suborbiculate +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (7.5 cm75 mm <br />0.075 m <br />) +
exalbuminous +
0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.1mm;0.2mm +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
branched +  and simple +
1 +  and 5 +
appendaged +  and truncate +
papillate +  and smooth +
Aster cordifolius var. alvearius +, Aster cordifolius var. furbishiae +, Aster cordifolius var. incisus +, Aster cordifolius subsp. laevigatus +, Aster cordifolius var. laevigatus +, Aster cordifolius var. lanceolatus +, Aster cordifolius var. moratus +, Aster cordifolius var. polycephalus +, Aster cordifolius var. racemiflorus +, Aster cordifolius subsp. sagittifolius +, Aster cordifolius var. sagittifolius +, Aster finkii var. moratus +, Aster leiophyllus +, Aster lowrieanus +, Aster lowrieanus var. incisus +, Aster lowrieanus var. lanceolatus +, Aster sagittifolius +, Symphyotrichum cordifolium var. furbishiae +, Symphyotrichum cordifolium var. lanceolatum +, Symphyotrichum cordifolium var. moratum +, Symphyotrichum cordifolium var. polycephalum +, Symphyotrichum cordifolium var. racemiflorum +, Symphyotrichum lowrieanum +  and Symphyotrichum sagittifolium +
Symphyotrichum cordifolium +
Symphyotrichum sect. Symphyotrichum +
species +
funnelform-campanulate +  and cylindric +
ampliate +
cespitose +  and colonial +
20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br /> (120 cm1,200 mm <br />1.2 m <br />) +
tree +, shrub +  and subshrub +
lanceolate +  and more or less diamond-shaped +