Symphyotrichum ericoides

(Linnaeus) G. L. Nesom

Phytologia 77: 280. 1995.

Common names: White heath aster aster éricoïde
Basionym: Aster ericoides Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 2: 875. 1753
Synonyms: Lasallea ericoides (Linnaeus) Semple & Brouillet Virgulus ericoides (Linnaeus) Reveal & Keener
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 20. Treatment on page 494. Mentioned on page 467, 483, 487, 488, 495, 496, 498, 512.

Perennials, 20–80 (–100) cm, colonial or cespitose, eglandular; branched rhizomatous, or with ± cormoid, branched, woody caudices. Stems 1–3+, ascending to erect (grayish brown to brown), sparsely to densely hispido-strigose, sometimes glabrescent proximally. Leaves usually all except rameal withered by flowering, (light grayish green) firm apices ± white-spine-tipped (often with clusters of smaller leaves in axils); basal sessile, blades (3-nerved) oblanceolate to oblong or spatulate, 10–50 × 10–25 mm, bases attenuate, margins usually entire, rarely remotely serrate, scabrous, apices rounded to obtuse, faces usually sparsely hairy, often glabrous; proximal cauline sessile, blades (1-nerved or 3-nerved) linear to lanceolate or oblong, 10–40 (–60) × 1.5–4 (–7) mm, reduced distally, bases cuneate, coarsely ciliate, margins entire, coarsely ciliate, apices acute or obtuse, faces moderately to densely strigose or hirsute; distal sessile, blades oblong-ovate, 10–40 × 1.5–3.5 mm, abruptly reduced distally, bases cuneate, margins entire, apices acute, faces moderately to densely strigose. Heads (1–200+) in paniculiform arrays, branches fastigiate or arrays often pyramidal, racemiform, secund, crowded. Peduncles 0.5–1 (–2) cm or subsessile, densely hairy, bracts dense, linear to narrowly lanceolate, usually reflexed, sometime appressed to ascending, 1.5–5 (–6) mm, densely hairy, grading into phyllaries. Involucres cylindric to campanulate, 2.5–4.5 (–5) mm. Phyllaries in 3–4 series, oblanceolate to ± spatulate, unequal, firm, bases (whitish to tan) ± indurate in proximal 1/2–2/3, margins hyaline, scabrous proximally, green zones diamond-shaped, in distal 1/2, apices spine-tipped, (outer) spreading to reflexed or squarrose, faces (outer) sparsely to densely hispid, scabroso-hirsute adaxially, (inner) glabrous. Ray-florets (8–) 10–18 (–20); corollas usually white, rarely pink or bluish, laminae 6–12 (–20) × 0.7–1.2 mm. Disc-florets 6–12 (–20); corollas yellow becoming brown, 2.5–4 mm, throats narrowly funnelform, lobes triangular, 0.5–0.6 mm, glabrous. Cypselae deep purple turning brown, obovoid to oblong-obovoid, ± falcate, not compressed, 1.2–2 × 0.4–0.6 mm, 7–9-nerved (faint), faces sericeous or densely strigillose; pappi whitish, 3–4 mm.

Distribution

V20-1110-distribution-map.gif

Alta., B.C., Man., N.W.T., Ont., Que., Sask., Ariz., Ark., Colo., Conn., D.C., Del., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Maine, Mass., Md., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., N.Dak., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., Nebr., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.Dak., Tex., Utah, Va., Vt., W.Va., Wash., Wis., Wyo., n Mexico

Discussion

Varieties 2 (2 in the flora).

Symphyotrichum ericoides resembles S. pilosum var. pilosum, which has larger heads, longer rays, and phyllaries that are not spine-tipped, though the revolute margins can make them appear so. Two subspecies and four weakly separated varieties of S. ericoides were recognized by A. G. Jones (1978). Tetraploids of var. ericoides on the eastern prairies can be difficult to distinguish from S. falcatum. A number of aster cultivars are sold under the name “Aster ericoides.” These are all derived from European garden plants and are either cultivars of S. dumosum, S. lateriflorum, S. pilosum, or S. racemosum, or hybrids involving one of those species and another taxon. The misapplication of the epithet ericoides dates back to the nineteenth century and has persisted in the horticultural literature.

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Plants colonial, rhizomatous, not cormoid; involucres cylindro-campanulate when fresh Symphyotrichum ericoides var. ericoides
1 Plants cespitose, with cormoid caudices, not strongly rhizomatous; involucres broadly campanulate when fresh Symphyotrichum ericoides var. pansum
... more about "Symphyotrichum ericoides"
not tailed +, rounded +  and obtuse +
white-spine-tipped +
distinct +
spreading +  and reflexed or squarrose +
subequal +
usually triangular +  and linear +
usually deltate +  and lanceolate +
paniculiform +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
Luc Brouillet +, John C. Semple +, Geraldine A. Allen +, Kenton L. Chambers +  and Scott D. Sundberg† +
(Linnaeus) G. L. Nesom +
subclasping +  and clasping +
cuneate +  and attenuate +
indurate +
Aster ericoides +
3-nerved +, subpetiolate +  and sessile +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
oblong-ovate;linear;lanceolate or oblong +
reduced +
1.5mm;3.5mm +
rugulose +  and muricate +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
appressed +  and ascending +
linear +  and narrowly lanceolate +
secund +  and racemiform +
crowded +, arrays +  and fastigiate +
pyramidal +
barbellulate +  and barbellate +
branched +, cormoid +  and rhizomatous +
White heath aster +  and aster éricoïde +
not 2-lipped +  and actinomorphic +
yellow becoming brown +, bluish +, pink +  and white +
at maturity , more or less ampliate , tubes usually shorter +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
beaked +, 2-ribbed +  and 5-ribbed +
purple turning brown +
0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
not compressed +, falcate +, obovoid +  and oblong-obovoid +
0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br /> (0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br />) +
fertile +  and bisexual +
fertile +  and bisexual +
Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.W.T. +, Ont. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Ariz. +, Ark. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, D.C. +, Del. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Maine +, Mass. +, Md. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, Mont. +, N.Dak. +, N.J. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, Nebr. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.Dak. +, Tex. +, Utah +, Va. +, Vt. +, W.Va. +, Wash. +, Wis. +, Wyo. +  and n Mexico +
strigillose +, sericeous +, glabrous +, scabroso-hirsute +, hispid +, strigose +, hirsute +  and hairy +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
disciform +  and radiate +
indeterminate +
heterogamous +  and homogamous +
each +  and sessile +
0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br />) +
cylindric;campanulate +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
0.7mm;1.2mm +
sessile +  and petiolate +
cauline +  and basal +
decurrent +
triangular +
entire +  and serrate +
ciliate +  and scabrous +
entire +, crenate +  and serrate +
2-carpellate +
persistent +
25 +  and 40 +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
oblanceolate +  and more or less spatulate +
styliferous +, neuter +  and pistillate +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
flat;slightly convex +
exalbuminous +
branched +  and simple +
ascending +  and erect +
1 +  and 3 +
appendaged +  and truncate +
papillate +  and smooth +
Lasallea ericoides +  and Virgulus ericoides +
Symphyotrichum ericoides +
Symphyotrichum subg. Virgulus +
species +
at maturity , more or less ampliate , tubes usually shorter +
ampliate +
branched +  and eglandular +
80 cm800 mm <br />0.8 m <br /> (100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br />) +
cespitose +  and colonial +
stipitate-glandular +
20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br /> (80 cm800 mm <br />0.8 m <br />) +
tree +, shrub +  and subshrub +
diamond--shaped +