Symphyotrichum falcatum

(Lindley) G. L. Nesom

Phytologia 77: 281. 1995.

Common names: Western heath or white prairie aster
Basionym: Aster falcatus Lindley in W. J. Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 12. 1834
Synonyms: Lasallea falcatus (Lindley) Semple & Brouillet Virgulus falcatus (Lindley) Reveal & Keener
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 20. Treatment on page 496. Mentioned on page 467, 472, 483, 495, 538.

Perennials 10–80 cm colonial or cespitose, eglandular; with branched rhizomes or with ± cormoid, branched, woody caudices. Stems 1–5+, ascending to erect (grayish brown to brown), moderately to densely hairy. Leaves (light grayish green) firm, margins entire, strigose, apices ± spine-tipped; basal withering by flowering, sessile, blades oblanceolate, 10–40 × 3–10 mm, bases attenuate, margins usually entire, rarely remotely serrate, scabrous, apices acute to obtuse, rounded to mucronulate-spinose, faces glabrate to moderately strigose; proximal cauline sessile, blades linear-oblanceolate to oblong, 10–40 (–60) × 1.5–4 (–7) mm, reduced distally, bases cuneate, margins entire, coarsely ciliate, apices acute or obtuse, faces sparsely to densely appressed hispido-strigose; distal sessile, blades linear-oblong to linear-lanceolate, 25–45 × 2–3 mm, bases cuneate, margins entire, apices acute, faces moderately to densely strigose. Heads [(1–) 10–200+] in racemiform to diffuse-paniculiform arrays (1–10+ per branch, usually not crowded). Peduncles 0.2–4 cm, densely hairy, bracts 1–3+, linear to lanceolate, densely hairy. Involucres campanulate, (4.5–) 5–8 mm. Phyllaries in 3–4 series, outer oblanceolate to spatulate (1.5–2 mm), inner linear-lanceolate (3–4 mm), unequal, bases (whitish to tan) ± indurate in basal 1/2–3/4, margins hyaline, scabrous proximally, green zones diamond-shaped, in distal 1/4–1/2, apices (outer) acute to obtuse, clear spine-tipped, spreading to reflexed, (inner) acuminate to attenuate, faces sparsely to moderately hispid-strigose. Ray-florets (15–) 20–35; corollas usually white, sometimes blue or pink, laminae (8–) 18–30 × 1.1–1.4 mm. Disc-florets (8–) 18–30; corollas yellow becoming brown, 2–2.5 mm, lobes triangular, 0.7–1.2 mm, glabrous. Cypselae dark-brown, obovoid, not compressed, 2–2.5 mm, faint-nerved, faces densely strigose; pappi whitish, 4.5–6 mm.

Distribution

V20-1113-distribution-map.gif

Alta., B.C., Man., N.W.T., Ont., Sask., Yukon, Alaska, Ariz., Colo., Idaho, Ill., Iowa, Kans., Minn., Mo., Mont., N.Dak., N.Mex., Nebr., Okla., S.Dak., Tex., Utah, Wis., Wyo., n Mexico

Discussion

Varieties 2 (2 in the flora).

Symphyotrichum falcatum is introduced in Ontario and Illinois. It may closely resemble S. ericoides, which has smaller heads with fewer florets in denser arrays. The two can be difficult to distinguish on the Great Plains. A. G. Jones (1978) recognized two subspecies of S. falcatum, one with two varieties. Those two subspecies are treated as varieties here.

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Plants cespitose, 1–5(–10)-stemmed, usually sparsely appressed-strigose, with cormoid caudices; new shoots developing near the bases of old stems; peduncles long, slender, bracts 1–5; phyllaries subequal (outer longest and foliaceous), apices not strongly squarrose Symphyotrichum falcatum var. falcatum
1 Plants colonial, usually densely hairy, rhizomes entangled, usually 1-stemmed, sometimes clumped; new shoots developing at ends of elongated rhizomes; peduncles stout, bracts 2–10+; phyllaries ± unequal, apices strongly squarrose Symphyotrichum falcatum var. commutatum
... more about "Symphyotrichum falcatum"
not tailed +, rounded +  and obtuse +
serrate +, entire +  and spine-tipped +
distinct +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
hispid-strigose +, glabrate +  and moderately strigose +
subequal +
scarious +
3mm +  and 10mm +
usually triangular +  and linear +
usually deltate +  and lanceolate +
racemiform +  and diffuse-paniculiform +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
Luc Brouillet +, John C. Semple +, Geraldine A. Allen +, Kenton L. Chambers +  and Scott D. Sundberg† +
(Lindley) G. L. Nesom +
serrate +  and entire +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
glabrate +  and moderately strigose +
cuneate +, acute +  and obtuse rounded +
indurate +
3mm;10mm +
Aster falcatus +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (4.5 cm45 mm <br />0.045 m <br />) +
glabrate +  and moderately strigose +
linear-oblong;linear-lanceolate +
reduced +
2mm;3mm +
rugulose +  and muricate +
linear +  and lanceolate +
barbellulate +  and barbellate +
branched +  and cormoid +
Western heath or white prairie aster +
not 2-lipped +  and actinomorphic +
yellow becoming brown +, pink +, blue +  and white +
at maturity , more or less ampliate , tubes usually shorter +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
beaked +, 2-ribbed +  and 5-ribbed +
not compressed +  and obovoid +
fertile +  and bisexual +
fertile +  and bisexual +
Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.W.T. +, Ont. +, Sask. +, Yukon +, Alaska +, Ariz. +, Colo. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Minn. +, Mo. +, Mont. +, N.Dak. +, N.Mex. +, Nebr. +, Okla. +, S.Dak. +, Tex. +, Utah +, Wis. +, Wyo. +  and n Mexico +
serrate +  and entire +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
strigose +, hispid-strigose +, hispido-strigose +, glabrate +  and moderately strigose +
acute;obtuse rounded +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
disciform +  and radiate +
indeterminate +
heterogamous +  and homogamous +
each +  and sessile +
linear-lanceolate +
0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br />) +
campanulate +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br />) +
18mm;30mm +
1.1mm;1.4mm +
sessile +  and petiolate +
cauline +  and basal +
decurrent +
triangular +
entire +  and serrate +
10mm;40mm +
glabrate +  and moderately strigose +
acute +  and obtuse rounded +
3mm +  and 10mm +
2-carpellate +
persistent +
25 +  and 40 +
0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
oblanceolate or spatulate +  and linear +
subequal +  and unequal +
styliferous +, neuter +  and pistillate +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
flat;slightly convex +
exalbuminous +
branched +  and simple +
ascending +  and erect +
1 +  and 5 +
appendaged +  and truncate +
papillate +  and smooth +
Lasallea falcatus +  and Virgulus falcatus +
Symphyotrichum falcatum +
Symphyotrichum subg. Virgulus +
species +
at maturity , more or less ampliate , tubes usually shorter +
ampliate +
cespitose +  and colonial +
stipitate-glandular +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (80 cm800 mm <br />0.8 m <br />) +
tree +, shrub +  and subshrub +
clear +  and green +
acuminate +  and attenuate +