Symphyotrichum novi-belgii

(Linnaeus) G. L. Nesom

Phytologia 77: 287. 1995.

Common names: New York aster aster de New York
Endemic
Basionym: Aster novi-belgii Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 2: 877. 1753
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 20. Treatment on page 528. Mentioned on page 476, 477, 501, 530.

Perennials, 17–100 (–140) cm, loosely to densely colonial or sometimes cespitose; long-rhizomatous. Stems 1–5+, erect (straight, stout to slender, often reddish), glabrous and hairy in lines distally or sometimes wholly strigoso-pilose (var. villicaule). Leaves thick, firm, ± fleshy, margins scabrous, apices mucronate, faces glabrous, abaxial midveins sometimes villosulous (var. villicaule); basal withering by flowering, petiolate (petioles winged, bases sheathing), blades ovate to ovatelanceolate or lanceolate, 17–60+ × 6–11+ mm, bases attenuate to cuneate, apices obtuse; proximal cauline withering by flowering, sessile or widely winged-petiolate (petioles clasping), blades lanceovate or obovate to elliptic to linear-lanceolate, 40–200 × 4–40 mm, bases cuneate or sometimes slightly attenuate, sometimes rounded or slightly auriculate, slightly clasping, apices acute to acuminate; distal sessile, blades lanceovate to linear-lanceolate, 13–62 × 3–15 mm, progressively reduced distally, bases cuneate or ± rounded, sometimes slightly auriculate, ± clasping, margins sparsely serrulate or entire. Heads in open to dense, paniculiform arrays, branches ± divaricate to ascending, leafy with remote, small, gradually reduced branch leaves. Peduncles 4–41 mm, glabrous or moderately pilose, bracts 1–3, lanceolate or ovate to linear-oblanceolate, subtending ones sometimes exceeding involucres, sometimes grading into phyllaries. Involucres campanulate, 6–9 mm. Phyllaries in 3–4 series, oblong-oblanceolate or spatulate (outer) or oblong-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate or linear (inner), ± unequal to subequal, bases indurate 1/5–1/3, margins hyaline, scarious, erose and sparsely ciliolate distally, green zones lanceolate, sometimes foliaceous, apices spreading to ± squarrose, usually acute to obtuse or ± long-acuminate, mucronulate, faces glabrous. Ray-florets 15–35; corollas usually blue-violet or purple, rarely pink or white, laminae (6–) 10–19 × 0.9–2.1 mm. Disc-florets 28–68; corollas yellow becoming reddish-brown to purple, 4–7.5 mm, tubes shorter than funnelform-campanulate throats, lobes lanceolate, 1–1.5 mm. Cypselae tan to brown, obovoid, compressed, 2–4 mm, 4–6-nerved, faces sparsely strigose to glabrate; pappi sordid to yellowish, 4–6 mm.


Phenology: Late Aug–Oct(–Nov).
Habitat: Woods and open places, especially sandy soils
Elevation: 0–1400[–2300] m

Distribution

V20-1172-distribution-map.gif

Ala., Ark., Fla., Ga., Ill., Kans., La., Mo., Nebr., N.Mex., N.C., Okla., S.C., Tex., Mexico (Coahuila)

Discussion

varieties 4 (4 in the flora)

Symphyotrichum novi-belgii is morphologically variable (J. Labrecque and L. Brouillet 1996) and this variation appears to have both genetic and environmental bases. The name Aster foliaceus has been misapplied to members of this complex in eastern North America; various other names also have been misused at the specific or subspecific levels. These are clarified under the varieties below. Hybrids of S. novi-belgii, probably mostly var. novi-belgii or var. elodes, have been reported with S. lanceolatum and S. lateriflorum.

Key

1 Proximal stems uniformly and densely hirsute; Maine, New Brunswick, and adjacent Quebec Symphyotrichum novibelgii var. villicaule
1 Proximal stems glabrous or slightly hirsute in lines > 2
2 Leaves: lengths 4–5 times widths, bases strongly clasping; plants robust, compact; New Brunswick Symphyotrichum novibelgii var. crenifolium
2 Leaves: lengths 7–10+ times widths, bases ± clasping or subclasping; plants slender to ± compact > 3
3 Leaves lance-ovate or lanceolate to oblanceolate, lengths less than 10 times widths, bases ± clasping Symphyotrichum novibelgii var. novibelgii
3 Leaves linear-lanceolate, lengths more than 10 times widths, bases subclasping Symphyotrichum novibelgii var. elodes

"thick" is not a number.

not tailed +, rounded +  and obtuse +
distinct +
1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
spreading +  and more or less squarrose +
subequal +
scarious +
6mm +  and 11mm +
usually triangular +  and linear +
usually deltate +  and lanceolate +
spiciform +, racemiform +, paniculiform +  and corymbiform +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
Luc Brouillet +, John C. Semple +, Geraldine A. Allen +, Kenton L. Chambers +  and Scott D. Sundberg† +
(Linnaeus) G. L. Nesom +
winged-petiolate +, sessile +  and petiolate +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br />) +
auriculate +, rounded +, cuneate +, obovate +  and elliptic +
indurate +
4mm;40mm +
Aster novi-belgii +
winged-petiolate +, sessile +  and petiolate +
1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br /> (6.2 cm62 mm <br />0.062 m <br />) +
lanceovate;linear-lanceolate +
reduced +
3mm;15mm +
rugulose +  and muricate +
subtending +
ovate +  and linear-oblanceolate +
reduced +  and small +
barbellulate +  and barbellate +
sessile +  and petiolate +
New York aster +  and aster de New York +
not 2-lipped +  and actinomorphic +
yellow becoming reddish-brown +, white +, pink +, purple +  and blue-violet +
at maturity , more or less ampliate , tubes usually shorter +
beaked +, 2-ribbed +  and 5-ribbed +
tan +  and brown +
strigillose +  and glabrous +
compressed +  and obovoid +
fertile +  and bisexual +
fertile +  and bisexual +
Ala. +, Ark. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Kans. +, La. +, Mo. +, Nebr. +, N.Mex. +, N.C. +, Okla. +, S.C. +, Tex. +  and Mexico (Coahuila) +
0–1400[–2300] m +
sparsely strigose +  and glabrate +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
Woods and open places, especially sandy soils +
disciform +  and radiate +
indeterminate +
heterogamous +  and homogamous +
each +  and sessile +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br />) +
campanulate +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
10mm;19mm +
2 (?) +  and 5 (?) +
0.9mm;2.1mm +
sessile +  and petiolate +
cauline +  and basal +
fleshy +  and firm +
decurrent +
reflexed;spreading;erect +
lanceolate +
entire +  and serrulate +
coarsely serrate +  and crenate or entire +
2-carpellate +
sordid +  and yellowish +
persistent +
25 +  and 40 +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
pilose +  and glabrous +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (4.1 cm41 mm <br />0.041 m <br />) +
Late Aug–Oct(–Nov). +
spatulate or oblong-lanceolate +  and linear-lanceolate or linear +
less unequal +  and subequal +
styliferous +, neuter +  and pistillate +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
flat;slightly convex +
labrecque1996a +
exalbuminous +
0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.1mm;0.2mm +
branched +  and simple +
1 +  and 5 +
appendaged +  and truncate +
papillate +  and smooth +
Aster sect. Heterastrum +  and Aster subg. Symphyotrichum +
Symphyotrichum novi-belgii +
Symphyotrichum sect. Symphyotrichum +
species +
funnelform-campanulate +
ampliate +
100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br /> (140 cm1,400 mm <br />1.4 m <br />) +
cespitose +  and colonial +
17 cm170 mm <br />0.17 m <br /> (100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br />) +
tree +, shrub +  and subshrub +
lanceolate +