Symphyotrichum praealtum

(Poiret) G. L. Nesom

Phytologia 77: 289. 1995.

Common names: Willowleaf or willow aster
Endemic
Basionym: Aster praealtus Poiret in J. Lamarck et al., Encycl., suppl. 1: 493. 1811 Aster salicifolius Aiton 1789
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 20. Treatment on page 521. Mentioned on page 475, 477, 501, 509, 516, 522.

Perennials (10–) 50–150 (–200) cm, colonial; fleshy long-rhizomatous. Stems 1, erect to ascending (stout, ± glaucous or reddish), glabrate to moderately hispidulous-hirsute (mostly in lines) distally. Leaves thick, firm, margins often revolute, scabrous, apices mucronate, abaxial faces glabrous, vein areoles conspicuous, ± isodiametric, adaxial waxy, glabrate to strigose, ± scabrous (distal cauline with axillary leaf clusters, sometimes becoming branches); basal withering by flowering, petiolate to subpetiolate (petioles winged, bases sheathing, ciliate), blades spatulate, 40–70 × 10–25 mm, bases attenuate, margins entire to shallowly serrate, apices rounded to obtuse; proximal cauline withering by flowering, sessile (subpetiolate), blades elliptic or lanceolate to oblanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 40–100 (–150) × 3–18 mm, progressively reduced distally, bases cuneate, often slightly rounded, apices acute to attenuate, callus-pointed, abaxial faces scabrellous, adaxial glabrous or ± puberulent; distal sessile, blades ovate or elliptic-lanceolate to lanceolate or linear, 10–85 × 2–17 mm, progressively reduced distally, bases cuneate, margins entire, apices acute or obtuse, callus-pointed. Heads in ample, foliaceous, usually dense, paniculiform arrays, branches ascending to spreading, ± racemiform. Peduncles 0.3–2 cm, ± pilose, bracts 5–12+, ascending or recurved-spreading, lance-elliptic to lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, foliaceous, distal closely subtending heads, not grading into phyllaries. Involucres campanulate, (4–) 5–7 (–8) mm. Phyllaries in 4–6 series, appressed, oblong-lanceolate to linear (innermost) (outer sometimes ± foliaceous), unequal, bases indurate 1/2–3/4, margins scarious, erose, hyaline, sparsely ciliolate (often ciliate basally), green zones lanceolate to lance-rhombic, apices sometimes spreading, acute to acuminate, mucronate, often reddish purple apically, faces glabrous. Ray-florets (6–) 20–35; corollas pale blue-violet to lavender or rose-purple, rarely white, laminae 5–10 (–12) × 1–1.7 mm. Disc-florets 20–30 (–35+); corollas cream or light yellow turning pinkish purple, 4–6.5 mm, tubes shorter than narrowly funnelform throats, lobes lanceolate, 0.5–1.3 mm. Cypselae purple or stramineous with purple, obovoid, sometimes ± compressed, 1.5–2 mm, 4–5-nerved, faces thinly strigillose; pappi white, 4–6.5 mm. 2n = 32, 48, 64.


Phenology: Flowering Aug–Oct.
Habitat: Wet, loamy soils, wet prairies or meadows, lake and stream shores, oak savannas, open woods or thickets, fields, moist banks, ditches, roadsides, recent clearings
Elevation: 0–400+ m

Distribution

V20-1161-distribution-map.gif

Ont., Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Miss., Mo., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Y., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Va., W.Va., Wis., Mexico (Chihuahua), Mexico (Coahuila), Mexico (Nuevo Léon), in Europe

Discussion

Symphyotrichum praealtum was reported by H. R. Hinds (2000) as a possible introduced, non-persisting ephemeral in New Brunswick. The species is introduced in central Europe, where it has been confused with S. lanceolatum (J. C. Semple et al. 2002). A. G. Jones (1989) reported hybridization with S. lanceolatum and S. firmum.

G. L. Nesom (1994b, 1997) and J. C. Semple et al. (2002) recognize several varieties within the species: var. praealtum [syn. Aster coerulescens de Candolle, A. praealtus var. coerulescens (de Candolle) A. G. Jones, A. praealtus var. imbricatior Wiegand] (2n = 32); var. angustior (Wiegand) G. L. Nesom (syn. A. praealtus var. angustior Wiegand) (2n = 64); var. nebraskense (Britton) G. L. Nesom (syn. A. praealtus var. nebraskensis Britton); var. subasperum (Lindley) G. L. Nesom [syn. A. praealtus var. subasper (Lindley) Wiegand, A. subasper Lindley]; and var. texicola (Wiegand) G. L. Nesom (syn. A. praealtus var. texicola Wiegand). Some of these varieties deserve recognition, but the validity of others needs confirmation.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"thick" is not a number.

... more about "Symphyotrichum praealtum"
64 +, 48 +  and 32 +
glabrate +  and strigose +
puberulent +  and glabrous +
not tailed +, rounded +  and obtuse +
petiolate +  and subpetiolate +
reddish purple +
distinct +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
entire to shallowly +
subequal +
scarious +
10mm +  and 25mm +
usually triangular +  and linear +
usually deltate +  and lanceolate +
paniculiform +  and foliaceous +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
Luc Brouillet +, John C. Semple +, Geraldine A. Allen +, Kenton L. Chambers +  and Scott D. Sundberg† +
(Poiret) G. L. Nesom +
petiolate +  and subpetiolate +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
cuneate +, rounded +  and obtuse +
entire to shallowly +
indurate +
10mm;25mm +
Aster praealtus +  and Aster salicifolius +
petiolate +  and subpetiolate +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (8.5 cm85 mm <br />0.085 m <br />) +
elliptic-lanceolate;lanceolate or linear +
entire to shallowly +
reduced +
2mm;17mm +
rugulose +  and muricate +
recurved-spreading +  and ascending +
lance-elliptic +  and lanceolate or linear-lanceolate +
ascending;spreading +
barbellulate +  and barbellate +
sessile +  and petiolate +
Willowleaf or willow aster +
not 2-lipped +  and actinomorphic +
light yellow turning pinkish purple +, cream +, white +, pale blue-violet +  and lavender or rose-purple +
at maturity , more or less ampliate , tubes usually shorter +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.65 cm6.5 mm <br />0.0065 m <br />) +
beaked +, 2-ribbed +  and 5-ribbed +
stramineous with purple +
strigillose +  and glabrous +
compressed +  and obovoid +
fertile +  and bisexual +
fertile +  and bisexual +
Ont. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Fla. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, Nebr. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.Dak. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Va. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +, Mexico (Chihuahua) +, Mexico (Coahuila) +, Mexico (Nuevo Léon) +  and in Europe +
0–400+ m +
strigillose +  and glabrous +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
Wet, loamy soils, wet prairies or meadows, lake and stream shores, oak savannas, open woods or thickets, fields, moist banks, ditches, roadsides, recent clearings +
disciform +  and radiate +
indeterminate +
heterogamous +  and homogamous +
each +  and sessile +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br />) +
campanulate +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
2 (?) +  and 5 (?) +
1mm;1.7mm +
sessile +  and petiolate +
cauline +  and basal +
decurrent +
reflexed;spreading;erect +
lanceolate +
petiolate +  and subpetiolate +
entire +  and serrate +
40mm;70mm +
rounded +  and obtuse +
entire to shallowly +
10mm +  and 25mm +
2-carpellate +
persistent +
25 +  and 40 +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.65 cm6.5 mm <br />0.0065 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
Flowering Aug–Oct. +
oblong-lanceolate +  and linear +
styliferous +, neuter +  and pistillate +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
flat;slightly convex +
exalbuminous +
0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.1mm;0.2mm +
branched +  and simple +
erect +  and ascending +
appendaged +  and truncate +
papillate +  and smooth +
Aster sect. Heterastrum +  and Aster subg. Symphyotrichum +
Symphyotrichum praealtum +
Symphyotrichum sect. Symphyotrichum +
species +
funnelform-campanulate +  and cylindric +
ampliate +
150 cm1,500 mm <br />1.5 m <br /> (200 cm2,000 mm <br />2 m <br />) +
50 cm500 mm <br />0.5 m <br /> (150 cm1,500 mm <br />1.5 m <br />) +
tree +, shrub +  and subshrub +
lanceolate +  and lance-rhombic +