Syntrichia amphidiacea

(Müller Hal.) R. H. Zander

Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 32: 267. 1993,.

Basionyms: Barbula amphidiacea Müller Hal. Linnaea 38: 639. 1874
Synonyms: Tortula amphidiacea (Müller Hal.) Brotherus Tortula caroliniana L. E. Andrews
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 27. Treatment on page 619. Mentioned on page 618, 620.

Stems 2–15 (–25) mm. Leaves infolded, twisted, and only slightly contorted when dry, erect-spreading when moist, variable in shape and size, narrowly or broadly spatulate, (1.5–) 2–3 (–4) × 0.75–1.5 mm; margins revolute in the proximal 1/2–3/4, entire; apices acute to acuminate; costa ending a few cells before the apex or percurrent, yellow or brown, smooth; basal-cells abruptly differentiated, narrower toward the margins; distal cells rounded, polygonal, or quadrate, 11–14 µm (or slightly elongate and 13–22 µm), with 3–6 low or high papillae per cell, thick-walled and collenchymatous; marginal cells in several rows smaller and smoother with thicker, often colored walls. Specialized asexual reproduction as gemmae on the adaxial or occasionally the abaxial leaf surface of leaves, cylindric, rounded at the ends, up to 50 (rarely 200) µm, brown when mature, multicellular. Sexual condition dioicous. [Seta red, 6–8(–10) mm. Capsule red, 2–3(–3.5) mm, straight or slightly curved, with a distinct neck; operculum 1–1.5 mm; peristome 0.5–1 mm, basal membrane 1/6–1/5 the total length, teeth irregularly twisted and contorted (crumpled) when dry, widely spreading or reflexed when moist, red. Spores 18–22 µm, strongly papillose.]


Habitat: Bark of trees, logs, acidic and basic rocks, occasionally soil
Elevation: low to high elevations (0–3000 m)

Distribution

V27 902-distribution-map.gif

N.C., Tenn., Va., Mexico, Central America, n South America

Discussion

The peristome of Syntrichia amphidiacea is unusual, being irregularly twisted and crumpled when dry but widely spreading or reflexed when moist. The species has a distribution disjunct between the southern Appalachians and Mexico, similar to that of a number of other mosses (including S. fragilis) and flowering plants that appear to be relicts of an ancient tropical flora. Sporophytes are known only from southern Mexico and southwards. Syntrichia amphidiacea is a rare species in the southeastern United States but common in Mexico.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

... more about "Syntrichia amphidiacea"
elongate +  and quadrate +
of 1-2 rows +  and differentiated +
long-excurrent +  and short-excurrent +
apiculate +, emarginate +  and truncate +
Acute (?) +  and Acuminate (?) +
Brent D. Mishler +
(Müller Hal.) R. H. Zander +
colored +  and hyaline +
reniform +  and rounded +
rectangular +
papillose +  and smooth +
usually slightly wider +
usually ovate;oblong +
Barbula amphidiacea +
obovoid +
not differentiated +
brown +  and yellow +
acute +  and long-cucullate +
brown +  and red +
curved +  and straight +
cleistocarpous +  and stegocarpous +
striolate +
cylindric +
monoicous +, dioicous +  and sexual +
flat to bulging +
vesiculose +  and thick-walled +
elongate-rhomboid +  and elongate +
tomentose +  and bare +
brown +  and yellow +
collenchymatous +  and thick-walled +
sometimes slightly longer than wide +
quadrate +, polygonal +  and rounded +
large +  and small +
N.C. +, Tenn. +, Va. +, Mexico +, Central America +  and n South America +
low to high elevations (0–3000 m) +
multicellular +
differentiated +
multicellular +
Bark of trees, logs, acidic and basic rocks, occasionally soil +
yellow +  and orange-red or red +
strong +  and weak +
1 +  and 3 +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
concave;keeled;channeled;ovoid;lanceolate or lingulate +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
2mm +  and 3mm +
spatulate +  and infolded +
variable +
rounded +  and cylindric +
0.075 cm0.75 mm <br />7.5e-4 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
revolute +  and plane +
pale +  and colored +
dioicous +  and sexual +
distinct +
photosynthetic +
compound +, simple +, hollow +  and solid +
3 +  and 6 +
flattened +  and 2-fid +
lateral +  and terminal +
blunt +, oblong-lingulate +  and ovate +
lateral +  and terminal +
red +, orange +  and yellow +
consisting of 16 mostly 2 times cleft spiculose striate or papillose lanceolate teeth , , , , +  and rudimentary +
synoicous +, autoicous +, dioicous +  and sexual +
cylindric +  and spherical +
Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. +
straight +
smaller +
elongate +
2 +  and 1 +
brick-red +  and laminal +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
Tortula amphidiacea +  and Tortula caroliniana +
Syntrichia amphidiacea +
Syntrichia +
species +
ovoid;cylindric +
thicker +
stemless +  and perigoniate +
green;yellow or redbrown +
small +  and large +