Syntrichia fragilis

(Taylor) Ochyra

Fragm. Florist. Geobot. 37: 212. 1992,.

Basionym: Tortula fragilis Taylor London J. Bot. 6: 333. 1847
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 27. Treatment on page 623. Mentioned on page 619, 620, 621, 622.

Stems (5–) 10–25 mm. Leaves crowded, longitudinally folded and spirally twisted around the stem (but little crisped) when dry, widespreading when moist, oblong-lingulate to spatulate, 2–3.5 × 0.75–1 mm, fragile, with sheets of cells breaking off, sometimes along lines of weakness; margins revolute before to as much as 1/2 the leaf length, to plane, entire or crenulate; apices truncate to acute; costa percurrent or slightly excurrent as a mucro 1–3 (–5) cells long, yellow or red, finely to strongly papillose abaxially, abruptly tapered; basal-cells abruptly differentiated, becoming rather abruptly shortrectangular near the margins; distal cells quadrate-hexagonal, 9–15 µm, bulging, with 3–8 papillae per cell, with moderately thick walls, not particularly collenchymatous; distal marginal cells not or weakly to strongly differentiated as a border of brownish, thicker-walled cells in about 2–3 rows. Specialized asexual reproduction absent. Sexual condition dioicous. Seta red, 10–15 mm. Capsule red, (1.5–) 2–4 mm, slightly curved, rather gradually tapered to the seta or with a distinct neck; operculum 1–1.5 mm, red; peristome 1–1.5 mm, teeth twisted about 1/2 turn, the distal divisions yellow, the basal membrane pale, about 1/4 the total length. Spores 13–20 µm, densely papillose.


Habitat: Bark of trees, rock (usually calcareous), occasionally soil
Elevation: low to high elevations

Distribution

V27 910-distribution-map.gif

Ariz., N.Mex., N.C., Okla., Tenn., Tex., Va., W.Va., Mexico, Central America, South America, Europe, Asia (China), Asia (Iran), Pacific Islands (Hawaii)

Discussion

Syntrichia fragilis shows considerable variability in size and leaf shape (apparently correlated with habitat conditions). In some small, corticolous plants, extreme fragmentation is evident, with an abnormal development of the lamina beyond the usual outline of the leaf. In such plants, several regions of each leaf seem to remain meristematic and produce scalloped or ruffled extensions that eventually break off. Fragility of leaves should not be considered an infallibly diagnostic character, however, since some plants of S. fragilis have quite firm leaves, and the leaves of some other species, particularly when old, may become broken.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Syntrichia fragilis"
elongate +  and quadrate +
of 1-2 rows +  and differentiated +
long-excurrent +  and short-excurrent +
apiculate +, emarginate +  and truncate +
Truncate (?) +  and Acute (?) +
Brent D. Mishler +
(Taylor) Ochyra +
colored +  and hyaline +
reniform +  and rounded +
rectangular +
papillose +  and smooth +
usually slightly wider +
usually ovate;oblong +
Tortula fragilis +
obovoid +
not differentiated +
brown +  and yellow +
acute +  and long-cucullate +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
cleistocarpous +  and stegocarpous +
striolate +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
monoicous +, dioicous +  and sexual +
flat to bulging +
thicker-walled +
brownish +, red +  and yellow +
Few (?) +  and Several (?) +
papillose +
tapered +
tomentose +  and bare +
excurrent +  and percurrent +
sometimes slightly longer than wide +
quadrate-hexagonal +
large +  and small +
dioicous +, sexual +  and asexual +
Ariz. +, N.Mex. +, N.C. +, Okla. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Va. +, W.Va. +, Mexico +, Central America +, South America +, Europe +, Asia (China) +, Asia (Iran) +  and Pacific Islands (Hawaii) +
low to high elevations +
differentiated +
multicellular +
Bark of trees, rock (usually calcareous), occasionally soil +
yellow +  and orange-red or red +
strong +  and weak +
1 +  and 3 +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
concave;keeled;channeled;ovoid;lanceolate or lingulate +
oblong-lanceolate +, lingulate +, spatulate +  and obovate +
reduced +
crenulate +  and entire +
pale +  and colored +
distinct +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
photosynthetic +
compound +, simple +, hollow +  and solid +
3 +  and 8 +
flattened +  and 2-fid +
lateral +  and terminal +
blunt +, oblong-lingulate +  and ovate +
lateral +  and terminal +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
red +, orange +  and yellow +
consisting of 16 mostly 2 times cleft spiculose striate or papillose lanceolate teeth , , , , +  and rudimentary +
synoicous +, autoicous +, dioicous +  and sexual +
cylindric +  and spherical +
Fragm. Florist. Geobot. +
straight +
elongate +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
2 +  and 1 +
brick-red +  and laminal +
2mm;3.5mm +
widespreading +
oblong-lingulate +  and spatulate +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
0.75mm +  and 1mm +
Syntrichia fragilis +
Syntrichia +
species +
ovoid;cylindric +
yellow distally and red +, orange +, red +  and yellow +
stemless +  and perigoniate +
green;yellow or redbrown +
small +  and large +