Syntrichia ruralis

(Hedwig) F. Weber & D. Mohr

Index Mus. Pl. Crypt., [2]. 1803,.

Basionym: Barbula ruralis Hedwig Sp. Musc. Frond., 121. 1801
Synonyms: Syntrichia ruraliformis (Bescherelle) Dixon Tortula ruraliformis (Bescherelle) W. Ingham Tortula ruralis (Hedwig) P. Gaertner, B. Meyer & Scherbius
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 27. Treatment on page 627. Mentioned on page 40, 619, 624, 625, 626.

Stems 5–15 mm. Leaves clasping at base, infolded and twisted around the stem when dry, widespreading (in smaller forms) to squarrose-recurved when moist, lingulate-ovate, 1.5–3.5 × 0.75–1.25 mm, canaliculate to keeled; margins tightly revolute in the proximal 7/8 or more, entire; apices emarginate to acute; costa excurrent into a serrate (or occasionally only faintly serrulate), hyaline awn that often red or sometimes broadly hyaline at base, weakly to strongly papillose on the abaxial surface and often serrate near the apex because of projecting cell ends, redbrown; basal-cells abruptly differentiated, narrowly rectangular, 35–70 (–90) × 11–18 µm, quadrate to narrowly rectangular at the margins; distal cells quadrate to polygonal, 8–12 µm, with 3–6 papillae per cell, bulging, somewhat obscure. Specialized asexual reproduction absent. Sexual condition dioicous. Seta red, 5–10 mm. Capsule redbrown, 2–3.5 mm, straight, with an abrupt neck; operculum 1.25–1.75 mm, brown; peristome ca. 1.25 mm, the upper divisions twisted ca. 2 turns, red, the basal membrane white, about 1/3 the total length. Spores 11–15 µm, papillose.


Habitat: Dry to moist soil and rock
Elevation: low to high elevations

Distribution

V27 918-distribution-map.gif

Greenland, Alta., B.C., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.S., Ont., Alaska, Ariz., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Maine, Mass., Mich., Mont., Mo., Nev., N.Y., Okla., Oreg., S.Dak., Tex., Utah, Wash., Wyo., Mexico, s South America, Eurasia, s Africa

Discussion

Syntrichia ruralis generally has conspicuously squarrose-recurved leaves when wet, with margins recurved nearly to the apex, distal portions of the costa toothed abaxially because of projecting cell ends, and relatively small laminal cells. The decurrent, hyaline base of the awn sometimes used to distinguish S. ruraliformis is not reliable and can, on occasion, be found in S. princeps, S. papillosissima, and S. norvegica. Specific distinctions in the S. ruralis complex are subtle, for the most part, requiring cross sections of leaves and stems, and careful measurements. The leaves of S. princeps and S. obtusissima are narrowed near the middle, whereas those of S. papillosissima, S. norvegica, and S. ruralis are widest about one-third the way up from the base and then taper to the apex. The stem of S. princeps and S. obtusissima has a strong central strand of thinner-walled cells, the costa has a group of hydroids just abaxial to the guide cells, and the basal cells in the leaf are relatively wide. In S. papillosissima, S. norvegica, and S. ruralis, the stem lacks a central strand, the costa lacks hydroids, and the basal cells in the leaf are relatively narrow.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Syntrichia ruralis"
elongate +  and quadrate +
of 1-2 rows +  and differentiated +
long-excurrent +  and short-excurrent +
apiculate +, emarginate +  and truncate +
Emarginate (?) +  and Acute (?) +
Brent D. Mishler +
(Hedwig) F. Weber & D. Mohr +
red +  and hyaline +
reniform +  and rounded +
quadrate +  and narrowly rectangular +
papillose +  and smooth +
usually slightly wider +
usually ovate;oblong +
Barbula ruralis +
obovoid +
not differentiated +
brown +  and yellow +
acute +  and long-cucullate +
cleistocarpous +  and stegocarpous +
striolate +
cylindric +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
monoicous +, dioicous +  and sexual +
flat to bulging +
vesiculose +  and thick-walled +
Few (?) +  and Several (?) +
elongate-rhomboid +  and elongate +
tomentose +  and bare +
redbrown +  and hyaline +
papillose +
sometimes slightly longer than wide +
dioicous +, sexual +  and asexual +
quadrate +  and polygonal +
large +  and small +
Greenland +, Alta. +, B.C. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, N.S. +, Ont. +, Alaska +, Ariz. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Idaho +, Maine +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Mont. +, Mo. +, Nev. +, N.Y. +, Okla. +, Oreg. +, S.Dak. +, Tex. +, Utah +, Wash. +, Wyo. +, Mexico +, s South America +, Eurasia +  and s Africa +
low to high elevations +
differentiated +
multicellular +
Dry to moist soil and rock +
yellow +  and orange-red or red +
strong +  and weak +
1 +  and 3 +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
concave;keeled;channeled;ovoid;lanceolate or lingulate +
infolded +
reduced +
revolute +  and plane +
pale +  and colored +
distinct +
0.125 cm1.25 mm <br />0.00125 m <br /> (0.175 cm1.75 mm <br />0.00175 m <br />) +
photosynthetic +
compound +, simple +, hollow +  and solid +
3 +  and 6 +
flattened +  and 2-fid +
lateral +  and terminal +
blunt +, oblong-lingulate +  and ovate +
lateral +  and terminal +
1.25 cm12.5 mm <br />0.0125 m <br /> (?) +
red +, orange +  and yellow +
consisting of 16 mostly 2 times cleft spiculose striate or papillose lanceolate teeth , , , , +  and rudimentary +
synoicous +, autoicous +, dioicous +  and sexual +
cylindric +  and spherical +
Index Mus. Pl. Crypt., +
straight +
elongate +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
2 +  and 1 +
brick-red +  and laminal +
1.5mm;3.5mm +
widespreading +  and squarrose-recurved +
canaliculate +  and keeled +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
0.75mm +  and 1.25mm +
Syntrichia ruraliformis +, Tortula ruraliformis +  and Tortula ruralis +
Syntrichia ruralis +
Syntrichia +
species +
ovoid;cylindric +
yellow distally and red +, orange +, red +  and yellow +
stemless +  and perigoniate +
green;yellow or redbrown +
small +  and large +