Tortula acaulon

(Withering) R. H. Zander

Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 32: 378. 1994,.

Basionyms: Phascum acaulon Withering Syst. Arr. Brit. Pl. ed. 4., 3: 768. 1801 (as acaule)
Synonyms: Microbryum floerkeanum var. henrici Renauld & Cardot Phascum cuspidatum R. H. Zander Phascum cuspidatum var. americanum Renauld & Cardot Phascum cuspidatum var. henrici (Renauld & Cardot) Wijk & Margadant Phascum cuspidatum var. piliferum (Hedwig) Hooker & Taylor Phascum cuspidatum var. schreberianum (Dickson) Bridel Tortula acaulon var. pilifera (Hedwig) R. H. Zander Tortula acaulon var. schreberiana (Dickson) R. H. Zander Tortula atherodes Tortula atherodes var. pilifera (Hedwig) R. H. Zander Tortula atherodes var. schreberiana (Dickson) R. H. Zander
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 27. Treatment on page 595. Mentioned on page 587, 589, 592, 593, 604, 631.

Leaves ovate to oblong-lanceolate, apex acute, mucronate to short-awned, occasionally comparatively long-awned, margins recurved proximally to nearly plane, not or weakly bordered distally with slightly thicker-walled cells; costa excurrent, lacking an adaxial pad of cells, distally narrow, 2 (–3) cells across adaxial surface; distal laminal cells distally quadrate-hexagonal, width 13–17 µm, 1: 1, weakly simply papillose or smooth. Sexual condition autoicous. Sporophytes immersed. Seta very short. Capsule cleistocarpic, spheric to very short-ellipsoid, erect, mostly 0.9–1.3 mm; peristome absent; operculum not differentiated. Spores (25–) 33–40 µm, spheric, densely papillose.


Phenology: Capsules mature winter–spring.
Habitat: Soil, lawns, fields, banks
Elevation: low to moderate elevations

Distribution

V27 849-distribution-map.gif

Alta., B.C., N.S., Ont., Que., Sask., Alaska, Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., Fla., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., La., Md., Mich., Minn., Mo., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Utah., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Mexico, Europe, Asia, n Africa, Pacific Islands (New Zealand)

Discussion

The varieties pilifera and schreberiana are not recognized here. The former name may be used for plants with long awns, and the latter for robust specimens ranging to 1 cm tall, but intergrades appear to be common.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"um" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Tortula acaulon"
smooth +  and papillose +
smooth +  and papillose +
2 +  and lacking +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
channeled +, nearly flat +  and concave +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
of 1-2 rows +  and differentiated +
long-excurrent +  and short-excurrent +
Richard H. Zander +  and Patricia M. Eckel +
(Withering) R. H. Zander +
semicircular +  and elliptical +
semicircular +, elliptical +  and rounded +
papillose +  and smooth +
usually slightly wider +
usually ovate;oblong +
differentiated +
Phascum acaulon +
obovoid +
cucullate +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (?) +  and 0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (?) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
dark-brown +  and yellowish-brown +
cleistocarpous +  and stegocarpous +
short-ellipsoid;spheric to very;spheric to very +
0.09 cm0.9 mm <br />9.0e-4 m <br /> (0.13 cm1.3 mm <br />0.0013 m <br />) +
monoicous +, dioicous +  and sexual +
thicker-walled +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
elongate-rhomboid +  and elongate +
tomentose +  and bare +
subpercurrent +
smooth +  and papillose +
autoicous +  and sexual +
Alta. +, B.C. +, N.S. +, Ont. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Alaska +, Ariz. +, Ark. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Del. +, Fla. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, La. +, Md. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mo. +, Mont. +, Nebr. +, Nev. +, N.J. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, S.Dak. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Utah. +, Va. +, Wash. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +, Mexico +, Europe +, Asia +, n Africa +  and Pacific Islands (New Zealand) +
low to moderate elevations +
differentiated +
multicellular +
Soil, lawns, fields, banks +
somewhat larger +
yellow +  and orange-red or red +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
concave;keeled;channeled;ovoid;lanceolate or lingulate +
ovate +  and oblong-lanceolate +
reduced +
serrulate +  and entire +
smaller +
rostrate;long-conic +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
not differentiated +
photosynthetic +
simple +  and hollow +
4 +  and 6 +
lateral +  and terminal +
lateral +  and terminal +
red +, orange +  and yellow +
consisting of 16 mostly 2 times cleft spiculose striate or papillose lanceolate teeth , , , , +  and rudimentary +
Capsules mature winter–spring. +
Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. +
straight +
not twisted +  and twisted +
brown;yellowish-brown +
elongate +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
2 +  and 1 +
orange +, red +, yellow +, laminal +  and light-brown +
spheric +
rounded-pentagonal +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
Microbryum floerkeanum var. henrici +, Phascum cuspidatum +, Phascum cuspidatum var. americanum +, Phascum cuspidatum var. henrici +, Phascum cuspidatum var. piliferum +, Phascum cuspidatum var. schreberianum +, Tortula acaulon var. pilifera +, Tortula acaulon var. schreberiana +, Tortula atherodes +, Tortula atherodes var. pilifera +  and Tortula atherodes var. schreberiana +
Tortula acaulon +
species +
ovoid;cylindric +
rudimentary +
32 +  and 16 +
triangular +
yellow distally and red +, orange +, red +  and yellow +
rectangular +
thickened +, thin +  and thicker +
stemless +  and perigoniate +
yellowbrown;dark-brown +
occasionally smaller than the perichaetiate +